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This article discusses selected historical developments of Japan’s public finance system from 1947 through 2004, then analyses the successful efforts for fiscal consolidation in the 1980s and the unsuccessful attempt in the 1990s. The article concludes with a look at ongoing reform efforts and lessons for the future.
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Performance-based budgeting seems to be a promising tool for improving the management and accountability of public finances. However, its application causes many difficulties. This article briefly reviews international experience with performance-based budgeting and explores its application in the Netherlands since the late 1990s, including a case study of the Safety Programme. The focus is on transparency and the quality of the
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This article discusses the reforms introduced in the Netherlands since the 1980s to improve the transparency and efficiency of government programmes: programme budgeting, policy orientation, and interdepartmental policy reviews. The impact on the budget structure and process is described. An annex explains some typical characteristics of the Dutch budgetary process.
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This article discusses the United Kingdom framework for performance budgeting and management and its evolution from 1998 onwards, primarily focused on the period 1998-2007. Public service agreements (PSAs) have moved away from inputs and processes to a focus on the outcomes that matter to public service users.
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Switzerland’s public accounting system has been completely overhauled. The New Accounting Model for the Confederation was used for the first time to prepare the 2007 budget and the 2008-10 financial plan. This article examines the fundamental new directions of financial management in Switzerland.
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Korea is in the initial stages of implementing performance-based budgeting. The system was introduced as part of a comprehensive fiscal reform package in the late 1990s. This article discusses the background, framework and implementation of performance budgeting and its impact in the budget process.
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Since 2001 Chile’s fiscal policy has been built on the concept of a central government structural balance. The Fiscal Responsibility Law, passed in 2006, gave legal force to key aspects of the structural surplus and fiscal policy.
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Major features of the Dutch fiscal framework are the trend-based fiscal framework with real net expenditure ceilings for the whole term of government, the role of independent organisations like the Central Planning Bureau (CPB), Statistics Netherlands and the Netherlands Court of Audit, and the intermediary role of the National Advisory Group on Budgetary Principles. This article describes the Dutch fiscal framework, its role in
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Management by performance began in Sweden’s public administration in the late 1980s, both as a tool for the government’s budget process and as a way for the government to control its agencies. This article discusses various aspects of the performance system in the Swedish context.
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This article describes the history of performance management in the United States government, including the Budget and Performance Integration initiative (BPI), the Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART), and the dedicated Internet site www.ExpectMore.gov.