Finance is a vital ingredient of economic growth, but there can be too much of it. Over the past 50 years, credit by banks and other institutions to households and businesses has grown three times as fast as economic activity. At these levels, further expansion is likely to slow long-term growth and raise inequality.
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This report responds to a request from the G20 that the IMF and OECD assess whether further work is needed on their respective approaches to measures which are both macro-prudential and capital flow measures, taking into account their individual mandates. The report was transmitted to G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors at their meeting on 16-17 April 2015 in Washington D.C.
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What are the economic effects of implicit bank debt guarantees and who ultimately benefits? This report sheds light on these questions
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Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are key contributors to economic growth and job creation. The current economic and financial crisis has reduced bank lending and has affected SMEs in particular. Capital markets will have to play a bigger role in financing SMEs in order to make them more resilient to financial shocks. This article reviews the spectrum of alternative market-based debt instruments for SME financing.
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More than half a decade has passed since the most significant economic crisis of our lifetimes and a plethora of different interpretations has been offered about its origins. This paper consolidates the stylised facts put forward so far into a concise and coherent meta-narrative.
What are the channels for investment in sustainable energy infrastructure by institutional investors (e.g. pension funds, insurance companies and sovereign wealth funds) and what factors influence investment decisions? What key policy levers and risk mitigants can governments use to facilitate these types of investments? What emerging channels (such as green bonds, YieldCos and direct project investment) hold significant promise for scaling up institutional investment?
This report develops a framework that classifies investments according to different types of financing instruments and investment funds, and highlights the risk mitigants and transaction enablers that intermediaries (such as public green investment banks and other public financial institutions) can use to mobilise institutionally held capital. This framework can also be used to identify where investments are or are not flowing, and focus attention on how governments can support the development of potentially promising investment channels and consider policy interventions that can make institutional investment in sustainable energy infrastructure more likely.
This annual publication provides major official insurance statistics. The reader will find information on the diverse activities of this industry and on international insurance market trends. The data, which are standardised as far as possible, are broken down under numerous sub-headings, and a series of indicators makes the characteristics of the national markets more readily comprehensible.
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The global economy continues to run at low speed and many countries, particularly in Europe, seem unable to overcome the legacies of the crisis. With high unemployment, high inequality and low trust still weighing heavily, it is imperative to swiftly implement reforms that boost demand and employment and raise potential growth.
Les investisseurs institutionnels (sociétés d’assurance, sociétés d’investissement et fonds de pension) sont les principaux collecteurs de l’épargne et émetteurs de fonds sur les marchés financiers. Leur rôle en tant qu’intermédiaires financiers et leur impact sur les stratégies d’investissement se sont accrus de façon significative au cours des dernières années avec la déréglementation et la mondialisation des marchés financiers.
Cette publication constitue un ensemble unique d'indicateurs reflétant le niveau et la structure des actifs financiers des investisseurs institutionnels dans les pays de l'OCDE et dans la Fédération de Russie. Les concepts et les définitions reposent essentiellement sur le système de comptabilité nationale. Les données proviennent des sources nationales.
Les données se rapportent aux encours d’actifs financiers tels que numéraire et dépôts, titres, crédits, et actions. Lorsque c’est pertinent, les données sont ventilées selon leur maturité et résidence. La publication couvre les fonds d'investissement, dont les fonds à capital variable et ceux à capital fixe, ainsi que les sociétés d'assurance et les fonds de pension autonomes. Les indicateurs sont présentés en pourcentage du PIB pour les comparaisons internationales, et au niveau de chaque pays, à la fois en monnaie nationale et en pourcentage du total des actifs financiers de l’investisseur. Les séries temporelles présentent les données disponibles pour les 8 dernières années.
Pension funds and annuity providers need to effectively manage the longevity risk they are exposed to. Individuals receiving a lifetime income may live longer than expected or accounted for in the actuarial calculations to provision for these liabilities. Mismanaged longevity risk can deteriorate finances, cause bankruptcy and expose individuals to the risk of losing their retirement income. To safeguard against this risk, pension funds and annuity providers must provision for future improvements in mortality and life expectancy. The regulatory framework can support the effective management of longevity risk.
This publication assesses how pension funds, annuity providers such as life insurance companies, and the regulatory framework account for future improvements in mortality and life expectancy. The study then examines the mortality tables commonly used by pension funds and annuity providers against several well-known mortality projection models with the purpose of assessing the potential shortfall in provisions. The final part of the publication identifies best practices and discusses the management of longevity risk, putting forward a set of policy options to encourage and facilitate the management of longevity risk.