Reports


  • 14-December-2018

    English

    OECD Competition Assessment Reviews: Portugal - Volume II - Self-Regulated Professions

    Several of Portugal’s product markets remain among the most heavily regulated in the OECD, not least in the services sector. As vital inputs into the business sector, the liberal professions, such as legal services, architects and engineers, generate up to 1.8 times their value in outputs when they are used by firms. Having structural flaws such as access restrictions and reserved tasks, adversely affect the availability of such services for firms, there hence their ability to effectively compete in the markets. Regulatory restrictions also hamper innovation, efficiency and productivity within the liberal professions themselves. Against this backdrop, this report analyses Portuguese regulations for 13 self-regulated liberal professions (lawyers, solicitors, notaries, bailiffs, architects, engineers, technical engineers, certified accountants, auditors, economists, customs brokers, nutritionists and pharmacists). Using the OECD Competition Assessment Toolkit to structure the analysis, the project analysed 923 pieces of legislation. The report identifies 323 legal provisions which could be removed or amended to lift regulatory barriers to competition. The analysis of the Portuguese legislation and professions has been complemented by research into international experience and wide consultations with stakeholders from the public and private sectors. The OECD recommendations aim to remove or modify the identified provisions in order to be less restrictive in the access or exercise of the professions, to the benefit of businesses and consumers alike, while still achieving the policy objectives as stated by the Portuguese government. This report identifies the sources of those benefits and, where possible, provides quantitative estimates.
  • 14-December-2018

    English

    OECD Competition Assessment Reviews: Portugal - Volume I - Inland and Maritime Transports and Ports

    Several of Portugal’s product markets remain among the most heavily regulated in the OECD, not least in the services sector. The inland and maritime transports in Portugal are a vital part of the business environment, ensuring the movement of goods and passengers and allowing for inputs into the business sector to arrive when and where they are needed. Regulatory restrictions on entry, on the market structure, and on company formation adversely affect the ability of firms, whether providers or customers, to effectively compete in the markets. Regulatory restrictions also hamper innovation, efficiency and productivity. Against this backdrop, this report analyses Portuguese regulations for road, railway and maritime transport and many anxilary services (such as vehicle inspection centres), as well as Portugal’s ports. Using the OECD Competition Assessment Toolkit to structure the analysis, the project analysed 904 pieces of legislation. The report identifies 405 legal provisions which could be removed or amended to lift regulatory barriers to competition. The analysis of the Portuguese legislation has been complemented by research into international experience and wide consultations with stakeholders from the public and private sectors. The OECD recommendations aim to remove or modify the restrictive provisions in order to benefit businesses and consumers, while still achieving the policy of the Portuguese government. This report identifies the sources of those benefits and, where possible, provides quantitative estimates.
  • 3-December-2018

    English

    Financial incentives and retirement savings

    Launched in 2014, this project is reviewing the cost effectiveness of tax and other financial incentives. It is assessing more efficient ways of using public money to increase savings for retirement, retirement income and replacement rates.

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  • 3-December-2018

    English

    Launch of the OECD Pensions Outlook 2018

    3 December 2018 - Every two years, the OECD Pensions Outlook provides an analysis of the main policy issues affecting pensions in OECD countries and assesses trends in retirement income systems. It discusses policy initiatives for strengthening pension systems, funded private pension systems in particular.

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  • 30-November-2018

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Viet Nam 2018

    This review uses the OECD Policy Framework for Investment to present an assessment of the investment climate in Viet Nam and to discuss the challenges and opportunities faced by the government of Viet Nam in its reform efforts. It includes chapters on foreign investment trends and performance, the entry and operations of foreign investors, the legal framework for investment, corporate governance and competition policy, tax reforms, investment promotion and facilitation, infrastructure connectivity, investment framework for green growth and policies to promote and enable responsible business conduct.
  • 28-November-2018

    English

    Financing Climate Futures - Rethinking Infrastructure

    Infrastructure worldwide has suffered from chronic under-investment for decades and currently makes up more than 60% of greenhouse gas emissions. A deep transformation of existing infrastructure systems is needed for both climate and development, one that includes systemic conceptual and behavioural changes in the ways in which we manage and govern our societies and economies.This report - a joint effort by the OECD, UN Environment and the World Bank Group, supported by the German Government - focuses on how governments can move beyond the current incremental approach to climate action and more effectively align financial flows with climate and development priorities. The report explores six key transformative areas that will be critical to align financial flows with low-emission and resilient societies (planning, innovation, budgeting, private finance, development finance, and cities) and looks at how rapid socio-economic and technological developments, such as digitalisation, can open new pathways to low-emission, resilient futures.
  • 12-November-2018

    English

    Global Outlook on Financing for Sustainable Development 2019 - Time to Face the Challenge

    The financing for sustainable development agenda promises to bring together more actors than ever before – from businesses, governments, philanthropists, and remitting households – to address the world’s most pressing problems and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.Yet, in spite of this promise, the financing for sustainable development gap is growing. While needs continue to increase, resources available to developing countries have been constrained and in some cases even declining, as illustrated by the recent drop in foreign direct investments. New financial instruments and interactions have yet to mobilise much-needed new resources in sufficient volumes. And despite significant advances, we do not yet fully understand the opportunities and risks faced by the various actors in this complex new global financing system.This report sounds a wake-up call. To fulfil the commitments of the 2030 Agenda, and lift hundreds of millions of people out of extreme poverty, the international community needs to maximise the development footprint of existing and future resources, thereby 'shifting the trillions' towards the SDGs. The first in a series, this report charts a forward path for the changes required in measurement, policies, and operations to achieve these ambitious objectives.
  • 12-November-2018

    English

    Developing Robust Project Pipelines for Low-Carbon Infrastructure

    This report aims to provide policy makers with a comprehensive examination of 'project pipelines', a common concept in infrastructure planning and investment discussions, and one which has become a focal point in countries’ efforts to implement their climate commitments. The analysis is structured around some basic but important guiding questions, including: What is meant by project pipelines? How can we characterise them? What concrete approaches and actions can governments and other public institutions take to develop project pipelines and mobilise private finance into these projects? This close look at pipelines suggests that they can only be as robust as the investment-ready and bankable projects that constitute them, as effective as institutions that deliver them, and as ambitious as the objectives to which they are linked. Through a series of case studies, the report highlights that while governments and public institutions are already taking actions to develop robust pipelines in a range of country settings, these pipelines nevertheless need to be strengthened significantly to meet long-term climate mitigation objectives. Good practices pioneered by the countries and actors in the case studies can provide models for governments to adapt and bolster their own efforts.
  • 7-novembre-2018

    Français

    Politiques en faveur des PME : Moyen-Orient méditerranéen et Afrique du Nord 2018 - Évaluation intermédiaire des principales réformes en faveur des PME

    Ce rapport présente une analyse approfondie des principales réformes entreprises entre 2014 et 2018 pour promouvoir le développement des très petites, petites et moyennes entreprises dans huit économies du Sud du Bassin méditerranéen (Algérie, Égypte, Israël, Jordanie, Liban, Maroc, Autorité Palestinienne et Tunisie).Le rapport se concentre sur cinq domaines stratégiques pour l’élaboration des politiques en faveur des PME : les définitions des PME, les statistiques et les institutions, mais aussi comment améliorer l'environnement des affaires pour les PME et les entrepreneurs, favoriser l'accès au financement et soutenir les start-ups et la croissance des PME, sans oublier bien sûr le développement du capital humain entrepreneurial.Le rapport vise à présenter des bonnes pratiques et à indiquer les domaines dans lesquels des efforts supplémentaires sont nécessaires. Il fournit des conseils précieux aux gouvernements, aux organisations du secteur privé, aux organismes multilatéraux et aux autres parties prenantes. Il s’agit de redoubler d’efforts afin de soutenir les PME, qui sont autant de vecteurs essentiels de l’emploi et de la compétitivité. Cela est particulièrement pertinent dans une région qui s'efforce de stimuler la diversification économique, la création d'emplois et l'inclusion des jeunes et des femmes dans l'économie.Ce rapport est le fruit d’une collaboration étroite entre les gouvernements, l'OCDE, la Fondation européenne pour la formation et la Commission européenne.
  • 5-November-2018

    English

    SME financing

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are key contributors to economic growth and job creation. OECD work on the financing of SMEs has intensified following the recent economic and financial crisis and in light of the emergence of FinTech and blockchain technologies.

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