A lack of finance for water resources management is a primary concern for most OECD countries. This is exacerbated in the current fiscal environment of tight budgets and strong fiscal consolidation, as public funding provides the lion’s share of financial resources for water management.
The report provides a framework for policy discussions around financing water resources management that are taking place at local, basin, national, or transboundary levels. The report goes beyond the traditional focus on financing water supply and sanitation to examine the full range of water management tasks that governments have to fulfill; when appropriate, a distinction is made on distinctive water issues.
The report identifies four principles (Polluter Pays, Beneficiary Pays, Equity, Policy Coherence), which have to be combined. In addition, it identifies five empirical issues, which have to be addressed on a case-by-case basis. Finally, it sketches a staged approach that governments might wish to consider, to assess the financial status of their water policies and to design robust financial strategies for water management. Case studies provide illustrations of selected instruments and how they can be used to finance water resources management.
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Given the current low interest rate environment and weak economic growth prospects in many OECD countries, institutional investors are increasingly looking for real asset classes which can deliver steady, preferably inflation-linked, income streams with low correlations to the returns of other investments. Clean energy projects may combine these sought-after characteristics.
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This definitional, stocktaking paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the concepts and definitions related to „green‟ investments that are currently used in the market place.
La stratégie de croissance verte du Danemark vise pour l’essentiel à supprimer les combustibles fossiles du système énergétique et à investir dans les technologies vertes, tout en limitant les émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES).
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The OECD/INFE High level Principles on National Strategies for Financial Education provide international guidance to policy makers with a view to developing evidence-based, co-ordinated and tailored approaches to financial education, both in emerging markets and more advanced economies. G20 Leaders recognised the important role of financial education policies when they endorsed these Principles in 2012.
This report analyses the results of simulations using an agent based model of financial markets to show how excessive levels of leverage in financial markets can lead to a systemic crash. Investors overload on risky assets betting more than they have to gamble creating a tremendous level of vulnerability in the system as a whole. Plummeting asset prices render banks unable or unwilling to provide credit as they fear they might be unable to cover their own liabilities due to potential loan defaults. Whether an overleveraged borrower is a sovereign nation or major financial institution, recent history illustrates how defaults carry the risk of contagion in a globally interconnected economy. The resulting slowdown of investment in the real economy impacts actors at all levels, from small businesses to homebuyers. Bankruptcies lead to job losses and a drop in aggregate demand, leading to more businesses and individuals being unable to repay their loans, reinforcing a downward spiral that can trigger a recession, depression or bring about stagflation in the real economy. This can have a devastating impact not only on economic prosperity across the board, but also consumer sentiment and trust in the ability of the system to generate long-term wealth and growth.
Cet article rassemble les résultats d’une nouvelle analyse empirique des effets de la composition du compte financier et des politiques structurelles sur la stabilité financière.
English, Excel, 497kb
Prepared for the G20 Los Cabos Summit, this policy note discusses the potential for and the barriers to pension funds investing in green infrastructure projects.
This endorsement reinforces the role of the Principles as one of the key global guidance instruments on financial education and awareness and as an overarching policy instrument offering governments and public authorities non-binding international guidance and policy options in order to develop efficient national strategies for financial education.
Given the systemic dimension and country spill-overs in certain catastrophic risks, the G20 is well suited to play an important role through the exchange of best practices and experiences to address events that, according to our analysis, cost the world economy nearly $350 billion last year.