By Date


  • 26-September-2016

    English

    Effective Carbon Rates - Pricing CO2 through Taxes and Emissions Trading Systems

    To tackle climate change, CO2 emissions need to be cut. Pricing carbon is one of the most effective and lowest-cost ways of inducing such cuts. This report presents the first full analysis of the use of carbon pricing on energy in 41 OECD and G20 economies, covering 80% of global energy use and of CO2 emissions. The analysis takes a comprehensive view of carbon prices, including specific taxes on energy use, carbon taxes and tradable emission permit prices. It shows the entire distribution of effective carbon rates by country and the composition of effective carbon rates by six economic sectors within each country. Carbon prices are seen to be often very low, but some countries price significant shares of their carbon emissions. The ‘carbon pricing gap’, a synthetic indicator showing the extent to which effective carbon rates fall short of pricing emissions at EUR 30 per tonne, the low-end estimate of the cost of carbon used in this study, sheds light on potential ways of strengthening carbon pricing.

  • 26-septembre-2016

    Français

    La tarification du carbone n’est pas à la hauteur des enjeux, mais un effort collectif même modeste peut entraîner des avancées significatives

    Les prix du carbone actuels ne sont pas au niveau qui devrait être le leur pour faire baisser les émissions de gaz à effet de serre responsables du changement climatique. Pourtant, même des hausses de prix modérées pourraient avoir un impact notable, comme le souligne une nouvelle étude de l’OCDE.

    Documents connexes
  • 20-September-2016

    English

    Extended Producer Responsibility

    OECD defines EPR as an environmental policy approach in which a producer's responsibility for a product is extended to the post-consumer stage of a product's life cycle.

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  • 20-September-2016

    English

    Economic instruments for sustainable materials management

    Environmental policies in many OECD countries make use of economic instruments such as environmental taxes, emissions trading and incentive subsidies. Economic instruments can make a substantial contribution to more efficient and sustainable materials management.

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  • 20-September-2016

    English

    Extended Producer Responsibility - Updated Guidance for Efficient Waste Management

    This report updates the 2001 Guidance Manual for Governments on Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), which provided a broad overview of the key issues, general considerations, and the potential benefits and costs associated with producer responsibility for managing the waste generated by their products put on the market. Since then, EPR policies to help improve recycling and reduce landfilling have been widely adopted in most OECD countries; product coverage has been expanded in key sectors such as packaging, electronics, batteries and vehicles; and EPR schemes are spreading in emerging economies in Asia, Africa and South America, making it relevant to address the differing policy contexts in developing countries.
     
    In light of all of the changes in the broader global context, this updated review of the guidelines looks at some of the new design and implementation challenges and opportunities of EPR policies, takes into account recent efforts undertaken by governments to better assess the cost and environmental effectiveness of EPR and its overall impact on the market, and addresses some of the specific issues in emerging market economies.

  • 16-September-2016

    English, PDF, 3,652kb

    OECD work on water 2015-16

    This brochure provides an overview of OECD work on water. Water policies around the world are in urgent need of reform. OECD work identifies the priority areas where governments need to focus their reform efforts.

  • 13-September-2016

    English, PDF, 2,279kb

    Greening household behaviour - Brochure

    This work is based on large-scale periodic surveys on Environmental Policy and Individual Behaviour Change (EPIC). The first two rounds involved more than 10 000 households across a number of countries. Five areas where households exert particular environmental pressures are examined: residential energy and water use, transport choices, food consumption, and waste generation and recycling.

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  • 13-September-2016

    English

    Global Forum on the Environment and Climate Change - organised by the Climate Change Expert Group (CCXG) - September 2016

    The Global Forum was held on 13-14 September 2016; and brought together approximately 200 delegates from both OECD and non-OECD countries to discuss the theme of transparency, and the issues discussed included transparency of mitigation and support.

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  • 9-septembre-2016

    Français

    Les conséquences économiques de la pollution de l'air extérieur

    Ce rapport fournit une évaluation approfondie des conséquences économiques de la pollution de l'air extérieur pour les décennies à venir. Il met l’accent sur l'impact en termes de mortalité et de morbidité ainsi que sur les changements dans les rendements des cultures qui ont été causés par des concentrations trop élevées de polluants. L'analyse s’appuie sur des simulations d’un modèle d’équilibre général multisectoriel, multirégional, et dynamique, pour évaluer les coûts marchands de la pollution atmosphérique. L'analyse aborde également les impacts sanitaires non marchands en utilisant des techniques d’évaluation de types « disposition à payer ».
    Le rapport constate que l'augmentation de l'activité économique entraînera une augmentation significative des émissions et des concentrations de polluants atmosphériques au niveau mondial, à moins que des politiques plus strictes ne soient adoptées. En conséquence, de graves répercussions sur la santé humaine et l'environnement sont à prévoir. Le rapport montre des projections de décès prématurés causés par la pollution de l'air extérieur au niveau mondial et régional pour 2015-2060, ainsi que les conséquences sur l'augmentation des maladies et la diminution des rendements agricoles. Les impacts marchands de la pollution de l'air extérieur devraient conduire à d'importants coûts économiques illustrés au niveau régional et sectoriel. Enfin, le rapport prévoit d'énormes coûts sociaux par an au niveau mondial si les gouvernements ne mettent pas en œuvre des politiques plus strictes.

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  • 8-September-2016

    English

    Air pollution: Tyre and brake fatigue compound an exhausting problem

    Anyone else feeling exhausted by all this drum humming about air pollution? Indeed it appears the fumes won’t be dissipating any time soon as we consider the extent to which tyre and brake rubbish exacerbate the problem.

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