A dirty, rundown environment has quantifiable costs for the economy and the well-being of societies. For example, the welfare costs of air pollution from road transport alone are estimated to amount to around 1.7 trillion USD in OECD countries, 1.4 trillion USD in China and 0.5 trillion in India.
Les pays qui mettent en œuvre des mesures environnementales rigoureuses ne voient pas leur compétitivité à l’exportation se dégrader par rapport à ceux qui appliquent des politiques plus timides – c’est ce qui ressort d’un nouveau rapport dans lequel l’OCDE examine les échanges de produits manufacturés entre les économies avancées et émergentes.
The consequences of degradation of environmental quality as well as the consequences of environmental policies are typically unevenly distributed. In general, poorer countries and lower income households are more severely affected by environmental degradation and at the same time have less capacity to adapt.
This paper presents the first empirical analysis of the macroeconomic relationship between environmentally related taxes and inequality in income sources. The analysis also investigates whether this relationship differs between countries which have implemented environmental tax reforms (ETRs) and ones which have not.
Remarks made at Session VIII – Green Finance and Climate Finance at the G20 Finance Ministers’ and Central Bank Governors’ Meeting
This workshop discussed how public policy can be used to facilitate climate-resilient infrastructure, based on the experiences of practitioners, government officials and other experts. It focused on national policies and initiatives in OECD and emerging economies, and aimed to identify emerging examples of good practice, implementation challenges and evidence gaps.
Nanotechnology is an emerging and promising field for advanced applications in industrial, commercial and medical sectors, and nanomaterials can be found today in sunscreens, deodorants and textiles. Yet these nanomaterials, which are increasing in number, are entering waste streams as part of end-of-life products along with conventional waste, without any real understanding of their environmental impacts or health risks on human beings and living organisms.
This report provides a literature review on four specific waste treatment processes (recycling, incineration, landfilling and wastewater treatment). While state-of-the-art waste treatment facilities may collect, divert or eliminate nanomaterials from these waste streams, the report concludes that knowledge gaps associated with their final disposal remain, underlining the need for further research in this area.
Des recherches doivent être menées de toute urgence pour évaluer les risques éventuels pour la santé humaine et les écosystèmes liés à la présence de quantités toujours plus importantes de nanomatériaux manufacturés dans les déchets ménagers, qui finissent rejetées dans l’environnement, selon un nouveau rapport de l’OCDE.
“If He holds back the waters, there is drought; if He lets them loose, they devastate the land”. To be fair, that was in the days before governments played “a key role in developing targeted policy responses to market failures that impede the mitigation and allocation of drought and flood risks”, as the OECD report on Mitigating Droughts and Floods in Agriculture puts it.
Paris is a beautiful city but has an ugly problem with air pollution. Using 2 wheels to get to work, one becomes acutely aware of this insidious addiction to cars, and the “essence” of the problem, DIESEL.