This paper describes MOLES 1.0, an integrated land-use and transport model developed with Object-Oriented Programming principles in order to combine selected characteristics from Spatial Computable General Equilibrium and microsimulation models. MOLES 1.0 models the links between urban land use, mobility patterns, urban economic activities and their environmental impacts, in particular air pollution and emissions of greenhouse gases.
Cette étude présente une analyse empirique d’un certain nombre des effets secondaires qui peuvent être associés à ces instruments, en considérant le cas des parcs naturels régionaux (PNR) français. Elle examine trois effets secondaires sur le développement urbain dans la zone réglementée qui peuvent être associés à l’existence d’un PNR.
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The car tax in Israel has been historically the highest compared to any other country in the world, except for Denmark. The vehicle purchase tax was adjusted in 2005, 2009 and 2013. The Israeli experience sets a precedent for a tax that takes all pollutants into account.
Israel’s growing population and rising incomes have seen consumption increase substantially, bringing with it considerable pressure on the environment. One of the main environmental pressures is from the ever-increasing transport activity, especially the use of private vehicles. Although travelling in a private vehicle brings benefits to the individual using it, this entails costs to society as a whole.
This database provides information on environmentally related taxes, fees and charges, tradable permit systems, deposit refund systems, environmentally motivated subsidies and voluntary approaches used in environmental policy in OECD member countries and a number of other countries. Developed in co-operation between the OECD and the European Environment Agency.
The OECD will convene its 6th Workshop on Regional trade agreements and the environment on 10 June 2016, at the OECD Headquarters. The focus of the workshop will be on chapters of regional trade agreement (RTAs) that are concerned mainly with issues other than the environment, such as market access, investment, or government procurement, TBT, regulatory coherence or dispute settlement.
A dirty, rundown environment has quantifiable costs for the economy and the well-being of societies. For example, the welfare costs of air pollution from road transport alone are estimated to amount to around 1.7 trillion USD in OECD countries, 1.4 trillion USD in China and 0.5 trillion in India.
This paper presents the first empirical analysis of the macroeconomic relationship between environmentally related taxes and inequality in income sources. The analysis also investigates whether this relationship differs between countries which have implemented environmental tax reforms (ETRs) and ones which have not.
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Despite a relatively good performance on several points compared to other countries, there is still scope for improving the effectiveness of Israel’s taxation policy from an environmental perspective.
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This report outlines principles for successful carbon pricing, based on economic principles and experience of what is already working around the world. It is intended to provide a foundation for designing efficient, and cost-effective carbon pricing instruments—primarily explicit carbon taxes and emissions trading systems—at the national and sub-national level.