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  • 31-juillet-2019

    Français

    Action de l'OCDE sur la biodiversité et les écosystèmes

    Les travaux de l'OCDE sur la biodiversité favorisent des politiques écologiquement efficaces, économiquement efficaces et équitables. Les travaux de l'OCDE sur la biodiversité et les écosystèmes soutiennent également les travaux de la Convention des Nations Unies sur la biodiversité biologique. En savoir plus sur la manière dont l'OCDE soutient les actions en faveur de la biodiversité et des écosystèmes.

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  • 31-juillet-2019

    Français

    Analyse coûts-avantages et environnement - Avancées théoriques et utilisation par les pouvoirs publics

    La présente publication examine les avancées récentes de l’analyse coûts-avantages (ACA) environnementale. Celle-ci correspond à l’application de l’ACA aux projets ou aux politiques qui visent explicitement à améliorer la qualité de l’environnement ou qui ont, d’une manière ou d’une autre, un effet indirect sur les milieux naturels. Cette publication s’appuie sur l’ouvrage précédent de l’OCDE rédigé par David Pearce et al. (2006), qui partait du constat que la conjonction d’un certain nombre d’avancées de l’ACA modifiait la manière dont bien des économistes recommanderaient de mettre en œuvre cet instrument, surtout dans le contexte de projets ou de politiques ayant des impacts environnementaux considérables.Cette publication n’a pas seulement pour principal objectif d’évaluer les progrès accomplis : elle cherche également à déterminer en quoi certaines évolutions illustrent des questions thématiques centrales ayant des conséquences pour l’application concrète de l’ACA environnementale dans le cadre de l’élaboration des politiques et de l’évaluation des projets d’investissement.Le thème sans doute le plus important a trait à la contribution de l’économie du climat face au défi que constitue l’évaluation des mesures publiques visant à atténuer le changement climatique (ou à s’y adapter). Les travaux dans ce domaine ont accru l’intérêt porté au mode d’évaluation des coûts et des avantages à très long terme et ils ont notamment montré à quel point les procédures classiques de détermination du taux d’actualisation social deviennent problématiques dans un contexte intergénérationnel et quelles pourraient être les nouvelles approches requises. La contribution de l’économie du climat a également suscité une réflexion plus poussée sur l’incertitude dans le cadre de l’ACA, en particulier en présence d’effets incertains qui peuvent avoir des impacts (négatifs) de grande ampleur.
  • 30-July-2019

    English

    Enhancing the Economic Regulatory System for Moldova’s Water Supply and Sanitation

    This report aims to support the development of a sound economic regulatory system for the water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in the Republic of Moldova (hereafter 'Moldova'). The prevailing policy framework calls for drastic developments in WSS to modernise and optimise WSS systems and improve operational efficiency (non-revenue water, staff-output ratios etc.) – in line with domestic and international commitments (including the Association Agreement with the European Union, the Sustainable Development Goals, the Paris Agreement and the national WSS strategy). This report outlines ways and means for strengthening the capacity of the Moldovan government to provide sound regulation and that of WSS operators to deliver higher standards of service while ensuring the affordability of WSS services. Such a transition cannot happen overnight. It requires a sound economic regulatory system conducive to affordability, cost recovery and debt servicing, and a realistic performance improvement path for water utilities.
  • 30-July-2019

    English

    Addressing Industrial Air Pollution in Kazakhstan - Reforming Environmental Payments Policy Guidelines

    Kazakhstan has recorded impressive economic growth rates since its independence, driven mainly by export of commodities and high rate of energy use. These rates are not sustainable and are generating significant air pollution, in particular from industrial stationary sources. This is putting at risk the country’s development ambitions to become one of the top global economies by 2050 and converge towards OECD living standards. Building on OECD previous analysis, this publication shows that Kazakhstan’s environmental payments (environmentally related taxes, non-compliance penalties and compensation for damage regulation) for industrial air pollutants, as currently applied, impede energy efficiency and pollution abatement with heavy-handed non-compliance responses and focus on rising revenues. They also add to the cost of doing businesses in the country with limited environmental benefit. In the spirit of the Polluter-Pays Principle, much more reforms of regulation of environmental payments are needed. This report provides guidelines for reform drawing from air pollution regulations in OECD member countries and the results of the analysis of the system in Kazakhstan carried out by the OECD in close co-operation with the Government of Kazakhstan.
  • 22-juillet-2019

    Français

    Documents de travail sur l'environnement

    Cette série a pour but de mettre à disposition d'un plus large lectorat des études sur des questions environnementales liées à la biodiversité, au changement climatique, à l'eau, aux déchets, à la performance environnementale d'un pays, à la modélisation économique et environnementale, à l'innovation, aux taxes et l'investissement vert.

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  • 22-July-2019

    English

    Global Forum on Environment - Plastics in a Circular Economy: Design of Sustainable Plastics from a Chemicals Perspective

    Policy instruments can be applied to improve the sustainability of plastics, including regulations, market-based instruments, information and voluntary tools. The report reviews the use of these instruments, provides good practice examples, such as product taxes and charges, eco-design standards, extended producer responsibility and environmental product labels, as well as discussing opportunities for their future applications.

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  • 19-July-2019

    English

    Policy approaches to incentivise sustainable plastic design - Environment Working Paper

    Policy instruments can be applied to improve the sustainability of plastics, including regulations, market-based instruments, information and voluntary tools. The report reviews the use of these instruments, provides good practice examples, such as product taxes and charges, eco-design standards, extended producer responsibility and environmental product labels, as well as discussing opportunities for their future applications.

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  • 17-July-2019

    English, PDF, 5,364kb

    OECD work on Chemical Safety and Biosafety brochure 2019-2020

    This new edition of the OECD work on Chemical Safety and Biosafety highlights the activities, results and ongoing projects as outlined by the 2019-2020 work programme.

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  • 17-July-2019

    English

    Release of the Global Harmonised Submission Transport Standard (GHSTS) version 2.0

    GHSTS is a standardised set of technical specifications for assembling electronic files for pesticide registration in a predefined manner. Once assembled according to the GHSTS, the dossier files can be transferred from a business to a regulatory authority and can be used in a regulatory process. Version 2.0 includes improved lifecycle management of documents over a series of submissions for one pesticide (or other) regulatory action.

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  • 16-July-2019

    English

    National Policy Dialogue on “Improving Access to Green Finance for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Georgia”

    On 16 July 2019, the OECD, with the Georgian Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development, organised a National Policy Dialogue on Improving Access to Green Finance for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Georgia, held in Tbilisi. Interesting discussions on ways to improve access to green finance and to take stock of initiatives and policy changes that could contribute to scaling up green lending and finance for SMEs in Georgia.

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