Pesticides agricoles et biocides
Data Requirements and Approaches to Biological Pesticide Registration
Biological pesticides act differently from chemical pesticides, so different data are required for their registration. A survey published in 1996 - Data Requirements for Registration of pesticides in OECD Member Countries: Survey Results shows what data different governments require for different types of biological pesticides. Work to harmonise the requirements was completed for three types of biological pesticides:
- Micro-organisms, or Microbial Pesticides: This category of biological pesticide includes bacteria (such as Bacillus thuringiensis), algae, protozoa, viruses and fungi. Used to control pest insects, micro-organisms generally pose little or no risk to man and the environment. But they must still be tested and registered for use. The project has reviewed the data requirements in individual countries and the European Union, and written Guidance for Registration Requirements for Microbial Pesticides (2003).
- Pheromones and other Semio-chemicals: Semio-chemicals are chemicals produced by plants and animals (and synthetic analogues of such substances) that influence the behaviour of individuals of the same or other species. Pheromones modify the behaviour of individuals of the same species. Allelochemicals modify the behaviour of individuals of a different species. Although they are chemicals, semio-chemicals are grouped with the biological pesticides because they modify the behaviour of insects rather than killing them. They are expected to pose little or no risk to man and the environment. The project has reviewed the data requirements in individual countries, and has written Guidance for Registration Requirements for Pheromones and other Semio-Chemicals Used for Arthropod Pest Control (2001) .
- Invertebrate Biological Control Agents, or Macrobials: This category includes insects, mites and nematodes that are natural enemies, antagonists or competitors of a pest. The project is working to harmonize data requirements and to draft guidance for the import, study and release of invertebrate biological control agents. The project is being carried out with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO), and the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO). The findings were published in 2004 as Guidance for Information Requirements for Regulation of Invertebrates as Biological Control Agents (IBCAs) .
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