The OECD is committed to the implementation of the 3R-principles, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, as first laid down by Russel & Burch in 1959, in their “The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique”. Since the adoption in 1981 of the first set of Test Guidelines, many of the genetic toxicity tests have been developed or revised to introduce aspects of the 3R-principles.
|TG||Title||Original adoption||3R relevance and most recent update|
|471||Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test||26 May 1983||21 July 1997: In vitro test for point mutation*|
|472||Genetic Toxicology: Escherichia coli, Reverse Assay||26 May 1983||Date of deletion: 21 July 1997 (Method merged with TG 471)|
|473||In vitro Mammalian Chromosome Aberration Test||26 May 1983||21 July 1997: In vitro test method*|
|474||Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test||26 May 1983||21 July 1997: Animal test (reduction method compared to 1983 version, uses a smaller number of animals)|
|476||In vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Test||4 April 1984||21 July 1997: In vitro test for gene mutations (genetic toxicity)*|
|477||Genetic Toxicology: Sex-Linked Recessive Lethal Test in Drosophilia melanogaster||4 April 1984||Test method on invertebrates|
|479||Genetic Toxicology: In vitro Sister Chromatid Exchange assay in Mammalian Cells||23 October 1986||In vitro test for DNA exchanges between sister chromatids (genetic toxicity)*|
|480||Genetic Toxicology: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Gene Mutation Assay||23 October 1986||In vitro test for gene mutations in Saccharomyces (genetic toxicity)*|
|481||Genetic Toxicology: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mitotic Recombination Assay||23 October 1986||In vitro test for mitotic recombination in saccharomyces (genetic toxicity)*|
|482||Genetic Toxicology: DNA Damage and Repair, Unscheduled DNA Synthesis in Mammalian Cells in vitro||23 October 1986||In vitro test method*|
* All the in vitro tests on Genetic Toxicology Testing are part of a testing strategy which progresses to animal testing only if necessary (in the case of equivocal results).