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Despite unprecedented progress over the past century, gender gaps in the labour market persist throughout the world and are especially marked in emerging economies. While the quantity of jobs held by women has increased in many countries, female workers continue to have worse jobs than men.
This chapter analyses how skills are used at work, why skills use matters for workers and economies and its key determinants. It draws on data for the 28 OECD countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills.
Labour market conditions are improving in OECD countries. In the fourth quarter of 2015, the employment rate was 0.6 percentage points below its pre-crisis rate, representing a deficit of 5.6 million jobs. This deficit is projected to narrow further this year, and close completely in 2017. We’re on the right track! But ─ as always ─ we need to dig a bit deeper to see the full picture.
Le rétablissement du marché du travail se poursuit et l’emploi devrait rejoindre son niveau d’avant la crise en 2017. Néanmoins, la croissance des salaires reste faible, selon un nouveau rapport publié par l'OCDE.
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This OECD report was developed in collaboration with the United States, Mexico and Canada, for consideration by the three Leaders in the context of the 2016 North American Leaders Summit.
Today, the OECD publishes "Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills", the Second International Report for the Survey of Adults Skills, which covers a further nine countries and sub-national entities – Chile, Greece, Indonesia (Jakarta), Israel, Lithuania, New Zealand, Singapore, Slovenia and Turkey– that collected data in 2014-15.
New research points to the role of field-of-study mismatch in explaining the long-term effects of cyclical labour market shocks. It suggests that policy effort ought to be directed not just towards the NEETs, but also towards youth who find employment during recessions, given their higher risk of prolonged field-of-study mismatch and lower wages if mismatch is accompanied by overqualification.
More than four out of ten workers in European OECD countries held jobs where the quality of the working environment resulted in job strain in 2015, with male, low-educated, and younger workers disproportionately affected and significant differences across countries. Nearly two-thirds of workers in Greece and over half in Spain, for example, worked in ‘strained’ jobs in 2015.