Kazakhstan has made major economic and social advances in the past decade and a half. Yet, Kazakhstan needs to sustain high growth rates in the future to converge towards the living standards of OECD countries. This report provides a review of the labour market and social policies that could help Kazakhstan in its dual objectives of building more inclusive labour markets, while maintaining a path of strong growth. It explores the role that institutions and policies play in helping vulnerable groups to access gainful and productive jobs, particularly focusing on three key groups: youth, older workers, and people with disabilities, and provides a comprehensive set of policies to increase the employment and employability of these groups. Evaluations and lessons from innovative experiences in OECD and other countries are used to formulate recommendations tailored to Kazakhstan.
This joint OECD-ILO publication provides guidance on how local and regional governments can foster business-education partnerships in apprenticeship programmes and other types of work-based learning, drawing on case studies across nine countries. There has been increasing interest in apprenticeships which combine on the job training with classroom-based study, providing a smooth transition from school to work. There are benefits to both individuals and employers from participating in apprenticeships, including increased productivity and job quality. Successful implementation is contingent on having a high level of employer engagement at the local level, notably in the design, development and delivery of programmes.
The present report on Japan is the seventh report in the Investing in Youth series. In three statistical chapters, the report provides an overview of the labour market situation of young people in Japan, presents a portrait of young people who are not in employment, education or training (the NEETs) and analyses the income situation of young people in Japan. Two policy chapters provide recommendations on how Japan can improve the school-to-work transition of disadvantaged young people, and on how employment, social and training programmes can help the NEETs find their way back into education or work.
Earlier reviews in the same series have looked at youth policies in Brazil (2014), Latvia and Tunisia (2015), Australia, Lithuania and Sweden (2016).
The development of artificial intelligence and of robots in particular is very likely to have a tremendous impact on the job market. Robots are not only replacing industrial workers, but also in the service sector. Today robots become lawyers, doctors, bankers, social workers, nurses and even entertainers.
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Les récents débats sur les propositions de revenu de base apportent un éclairage utile sur les problèmes que posent de plus en plus les formes traditionnelles de garantie de ressources. Les réformes visant à mettre en place une garantie de ressources plus largement ciblée devraient intervenir par phases, et nécessiteraient parallèlement un débat sur les moyens de financer un partage plus égal des fruits de la croissance économique.
The talk of the town this year has truly been the so-called fourth industrial revolution–and rightly so. Digitalisation causes an increasing interconnectivity of people, production and processes. Combined with the rapid development in artificial intelligence, self-learning machines and robot technology it heralds a new time of revolutionary technological progress.
Selon un nouveau rapport publié aujourd'hui par l'OCDE, le ralentissement de la croissance de la productivité – déjà amorcé avant la crise et conjugué à la faiblesse des investissements – a continué ces dernières années de saper l’augmentation de la production économique et des niveaux de vie matériels dans de nombreux pays du monde.
Globalisation, demographic trends and technological change are transforming jobs in our economy. 9% of jobs across OECD countries could be automated in the next 15-20 years and a further 25% are at risk of significant change. The risk in emerging economies is even larger. According to recent studies, China and India together account for the largest technically automatable employment potential.
This report presents a comprehensive overview of recent and longer-term trends in productivity levels and growth in OECD countries, accession countries, key partners and some G20 countries. It includes measures of labour productivity, capital productivity and multifactor productivity, as well as indicators of international competitiveness. A special chapter analyses how productivity and wages have evolved in the post-crisis period, while describing the major challenges in measuring the wage-productivity gap and the labour income share.
SMEs and entrepreneurs play a key role in national economies around the world, generating employment and income, contributing to innovation and knowledge diffusion, responding to new or niched demands and social needs, and enhancing social inclusion. However, SMEs are often more affected by business environment conditions and structural policies than larger firms.
This report presents comparative evidence on SME performance and trends, and on a broad range of policy areas and business environment conditions that are important for small businesses. The analysis takes into account the multi-dimensionality of SME policy objectives and the significant heterogeneity of the SME population, within and across countries. Data and indicators on framework conditions are complemented with information on recent policy trends in OECD countries. This publication addresses a growing demand by governments for tools to monitor the business environment for small and medium-sized enterprises, and benchmark the effectiveness of policies in creating appropriate conditions for them to flourish and grow.