Discussion on how technology helps measuring skills shortages in real time
Health workers are the cornerstone of health systems, playing a central role in providing health services to the population and improving health outcomes. The demand and supply of health workers have increased over time in all OECD countries, with jobs in the health and social sector accounting for more than 10% of total employment now in several OECD countries. This publication reviews key trends and policy priorities on health workforce across OECD countries, with a particular focus on doctors and nurses given the preeminent role that they have traditionally played in health service delivery.
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Following this medical degree, new medical graduates can apply to enter in four different types of post-graduate clinical training programmes that are of various length: general practice (lasting 3 years), more than 30 different medical or surgical specialties (lasting 4 to 6 years), public health specialty (lasting 2.5 to years), or nursing home specialist (lasting 2 years).
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There are two broad categories of nurses in the United States: licensed practical nurses (LPNs) or licensed vocational nurses (LVNs, and registered nurses (RNs). In addition, graduates from RN programs can pursue further education at the master’s (or doctorate) level to become Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs).
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Entry to initial medical education in Australia can either occur directly following the completion of secondary school (entry to undergraduate medical education) or following the completion of a bachelor degree in any field (entry to graduate medical education). In 2014, 18 medical schools offered medical education programs in Australia.
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Entry to medical education in Ireland can occur in two ways: students can access it directly from secondary school (in which case it takes them 5 to 6 years to complete the programme) or after receiving a first bachelor degree (in which case the programme can be completed in 4 years).
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To become a doctor in Canada, a student can therefore expect 9 to 13 years of university education and post-graduate training, depending on the area of specialisation.
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In France, there is only one main category of nurses. Following the 2009 reform, nursing education has moved from vocational programmes to higher education (university) programmes, with a requirement for nurses to obtain a Bachelor degree to align these educational requirements with other European countries.
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New medical graduates then pursue their clinical specialty training (internship/residency), with the length of the training varying depending on the specialty. Overall, to become a doctor in the US, on average, a student can expect 10 to 16 years of higher education and post-graduate training.
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The Ministry of Health is responsible for post-graduate medical training and determining the number of positions available. Once registered with the Physicians Association, application for post-graduate training is possible. The funding for post-graduate training comes from the National Health Service budget.