In the wake of the technological revolution that began in the last decades of the 20th century, labour market demand for information-processing and other high-level cognitive and interpersonal skills is growing substantially. The Survey of Adult Skills, a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), was designed to provide insights into the availability of some of these key skills in society and how they are used at work and at home. The first survey of its kind, it directly measures proficiency in several information-processing skills – namely literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology-rich environments.
The Survey of Adult Skills: Reader’s Companion, Second Edition describes the design and methodology of the survey and its relationship to other international assessments of young students and adults. It is a companion volume to Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. Skills Matter reports results from the 24 countries and regions that participated in the first round of the survey in 2011-12 (first published in OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills) and from the nine additional countries that participated in the second round in 2014-15 (Chile, Greece, Indonesia [Jakarta], Israel, Lithuania, New Zealand, Singapore, Slovenia and Turkey).
New research points to the role of field-of-study mismatch in explaining the long-term effects of cyclical labour market shocks. It suggests that policy effort ought to be directed not just towards the NEETs, but also towards youth who find employment during recessions, given their higher risk of prolonged field-of-study mismatch and lower wages if mismatch is accompanied by overqualification.
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Although increasing, life expectancy in the Czech Republic, at 78.3 years, was still below the OECD average of 80.5 years in 2013. The Czech Republic presents above average levels of risk factors such as tobacco, alcohol consumption and obesity. To cope with the expected rise in chronic diseases, the Czech Republic will have to shift care from the hospital sector and strengthen preventive health care.
The demand for soft skills is increasing, and recent evidence suggests that the supply does not seem to keep up. The benefits from further development of these skills go beyond better labour market outcomes, as soft skills have been shown to contribute to overall well-being.
A more skilled population ahead: age or cohort effects? Evidence from PIAAC and the differences in policies approach.
La série de l’OCDE Les clés de l’intégration résume les principaux enseignements des travaux de l’OCDE sur les politiques d’intégration, et notamment de la série d’études par pays : Les migrants et l’emploi. Elle vise à synthétiser les principaux défis et les bonnes pratiques en matière d’intégration durable des immigrés et de leurs enfants en ciblant quelques domaines clés d’intégration et quelques groupes cibles. Chaque brochure contient dix enseignements et des exemples de bonnes pratiques en la matière complétés par des comparaisons synthétiques des politiques d’intégration des pays membres de l’OCDE. Cette première brochure dresse l’inventaire des expériences des pays de l’OCDE en matière d’intégration des réfugiés et des autres groupes nécessitant une protection, désignés comme migrants humanitaires.
At the OECD, we have calculated that about 50% of all the antimicrobials prescribed by healthcare facilities in our member countries do not meet prescription guidelines. In healthcare services such as long-term care facilities and general practices up to 70% and 90% respectively of antibiotics may be prescribed for inappropriate reasons.
La crise actuelle des réfugiés nécessite une réponse audacieuse, systématique et mondiale. Dans le même temps, les pays de l’OCDE devraient adapter leurs politiques afin de favoriser l’intégration des réfugiés appelés à rester dans leur pays d’accueil. Si cette démarche implique des coûts initiaux importants, elle est aussi essentielle pour bénéficier à moyen et à long terme d’importants avantages économiques et sociaux.
The OECD series Recruiting Immigrant Workers comprises country studies of labour migration policies. Each volume analyses whether migration policy is being used effectively and efficiently to help meet labour needs, without adverse effects on labour markets. It focuses mainly on regulated labour migration movements over which policy has immediate and direct oversight. This particular volume looks at the efficiency of European Union instruments for managing labour migration.
Tax incentives are used widely across OECD countries to incentivise individuals to invest in education and training, but are they effective? Recent evidence from the USA highlights the risk of creating overly complex systems in which the embedded incentives are no longer fully understood by individuals. This carries an important lesson for other countries in designing their own tax measures for skills investments.