This Tax Policy Study on Tax and Skills examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries. This study also assesses the returns to tertiary and adult education and examines how these returns are allocated to governments and students. The study builds indicators that examine incentives for individuals and governments to invest in education. These indicators take into account the various financial costs of skills investments for individuals such as lost after-tax earnings and tuition fees, whether investments are financed with savings or with student loans. Costs borne by governments such as grants, scholarships, lost taxes, and skills tax expenditures are also accounted for. The indicators also incorporate the returns to skills investments for individuals and governments through higher after-tax wages and higher tax revenues respectively.
Higher education policy is the key to lifelong learning and this is particularly important as the ageing population is increasing in many countries. It is a major driver of economic competitiveness in an increasingly knowledge-driven global economy and it also brings social cohesion and well-being. Countries are increasingly aware that higher education institutions need to foster the skills required to sustain a globally competitive research base and improve knowledge dissemination to the benefit of society. Kazakhstan’s higher education system has made progress over the past ten years. However, there is scope for improvement in delivering labour-market relevant skills to Kazakhstanis, and in supporting economic growth through research and innovation.
In examining the higher education system in Kazakhstan, this report builds on a 2007 joint OECD/World Bank review: Reviews of National Policies for Education: Higher Education in Kazakhstan 2007. Each chapter presents an overview of progress made in the past decade across the main areas explored in the 2007 report. These include quality and relevance, access and equity, internationalisation, research and innovation, financing and governance. The report also examines policy responses to evolving dynamics in higher education and the wider socio-economic changes.
Français, PDF, 752kb
Cet article décrit quantitativement ce phénomène de découplage au cours des vingt dernières années et suggère qu’il s’explique à la fois par une baisse de la part de la rémunération dans la valeur ajoutée et du ratio entre le salaire médian et le salaire moyen (une mesure partielle de l’inégalité salariale).
For the first time in PISA a teacher questionnaire provides valuable information on teaching practices and learning activities in the classroom. This webinar will focus on insights from the PISA findings on teacher policy and practice.
Français, PDF, 2,505kb
La Malaisie a suivi une trajectoire de développement comparativement équitable, éliminant largement la pauvreté absolue et réduisant considérablement l’inégalité ethnique.
Français, PDF, 2,817kb
Une amélioration soutenue du niveau de vie de la population n’est pas possible sans croissance de la productivité. Au stade de développement actuel de la Malaisie, la croissance doit reposer davantage sur des gains de productivité que sur l'accumulation des facteurs de production.
Français, PDF, 3,687kb
La Malaisie a connu plus de quatre décennies de croissance rapide et inclusive, réduisant sa dépendance à l'égard de l'agriculture et des exportations de matières premières, pour devenir une économie plus diversifiée, moderne et ouverte.
Structural reforms are regularly assessed based on their ability to boost GDP per capita. This emphasis relies on the assumption that higher GDP per capita is systematically associated with rising living standards for the vast majority of citizens. This view is increasingly being challenged.
The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) examines not just what students know in science, reading and mathematics, but what they can do with what they know. Results from PISA show educators and policy makers the quality and equity of learning outcomes achieved elsewhere, and allow them to learn from the policies and practices applied in other countries.