Publications & Documents

  • 28-January-2021


    Going Digital in Latvia

    Going Digital in Latvia analyses recent developments in Latvia’s digital economy, reviews policies related to digitalisation and make recommendations to increase policy coherence in this area, based on the OECD Going Digital Integrated Policy Framework. The review uses strategic foresight to explore three alternative future scenarios, which could result from the digital transformation of the global economy and society. It also examines the availability and quality of communication networks and services in Latvia as well as related policies and regulations. Further, it reviews trends in digital technology usage among individuals, businesses and the government, and examines policies to foster diffusion. Finally, the review analyses opportunities and challenges raised by digitalisation in key areas, from innovation and skills to digital security and data governance, and evaluates policy responses to these changes in Latvia.
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  • 18-December-2020


    Raising the Basic Skills of Workers in England, United Kingdom

    This report provides examples and recommendations to help overcome obstacles to engage low-skilled workers and their employers in skills development. England has implemented impressive measures aimed at helping workers and employers to upskill. Nonetheless, there remains room for improvement. More can be done to identify workers with low basic skills, raise awareness of why improving those skills is important, increase the accessibility to relevant courses, ensure these courses are flexible enough to accommodate adult learners who are already employed, and finally make the provision relevant to career aspirations. This report urges England to establish and promote a vision for raising the skills of low-skilled workers, identify their needs more systematically, and provide targeted guidance and information to them and their employers. It highlights that accessible and flexible adult learning opportunities in the workplace, home, community and by other means such as online and distance learning can better meet the varied needs of low-skilled workers. It also makes the case for the use of contextualised learning approaches, which create connections between basic skills and vocational context, and a more effective use of basic skills in workplaces to maintain, develop and realise the benefits of prior skills investments.
  • 15-December-2020


    Lessons for Education from COVID-19 - A Policy Maker’s Handbook for More Resilient Systems

    The COVID-19 pandemic has shaken long-accepted beliefs about education, showing that learning can occur anywhere, at any time, and that education systems are not too heavy to move. When surveyed in May 2020, only around one-fifth of OECD education systems aimed to reinstate the status quo. Policy makers must therefore maintain the momentum of collective emergency action to drive education into a new and better normal. This Handbook provides practical guidance to support them to do just that. It presents the current state-of-play in over 40 education systems, and efforts to improve pedagogical practices in the midst of the pandemic. It proposes three key lessons and related policy pointers for the current academic term and beyond. Drawing on concrete examples of COVID-19 policy responses from primary to tertiary, as well as impactful pre-crisis policies, it addresses the policy areas of flexible learning, educator skills, and student equity. The Handbook has been prepared with evidence from the Education Policy Outlook series – the OECD’s analytical observatory of education policy. As such, it benefits from a decade of policy analysis, outcomes from the Education Policy Reform Dialogues 2020, and the development of an actionable Framework for Responsiveness and Resilience in education.
  • 7-décembre-2020


    Dynamiques du développement en Afrique 2020 - Transformation digitale et qualité de l'emploi

    Dynamiques du développement en Afrique tire les leçons des expériences des cinq régions du continent – Afrique australe, centrale, de l'Est, du Nord et de l'Ouest – pour développer des recommandations politiques et partager les bonnes pratiques. Étayé par les plus récentes statistiques, son décryptage des dynamiques de développement vise à permettre aux leaders africains de réaliser la vision stratégique de l’Agenda 2063 à tous les niveaux : continental, régional, national et local. L'édition 2020 explore le potentiel de la transformation digitale pour créer des emplois de qualité et réaliser l'Agenda 2063, en vue de renforcer la résilience des économies africaines face à la récession mondiale déclenchée par la pandémie de COVID-19. Le rapport cible quatre axes politiques principaux pour soutenir la transformation digitale de l'Afrique : réduire la fracture digitale ; soutenir l'innovation locale ; dynamiser les travailleurs indépendants ; et accélérer l'harmonisation, la mise en œuvre et le suivi des stratégies digitales. Cette édition comprend un nouveau chapitre examinant les perspectives de financement du développement de l'Afrique face à la crise économique mondiale de 2020. Dynamiques du développement en Afrique a pour vocation de nourrir le débat entre les membres de l’Union africaine, ainsi que les citoyens, entrepreneurs et chercheurs. Son ambition est de participer à une nouvelle coopération entre pays et régions, qui soit tournée vers l’apprentissage mutuel et la préservation de nos biens communs. Fort de cette vision, ce rapport est le fruit de la coopération entre la Commission de l’Union africaine et le Centre de développement de l’OCDE.
  • 4-December-2020


    Professional growth in times of change - Supporting teachers’ continuing professional learning and collaboration

    The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted schooling around the world and highlighted how critical it is for teachers to quickly learn, improve and adapt their practice to changing conditions. Continuing professional learning is vital to support teachers in refreshing, developing and broadening their knowledge and to help them keep up with changing research, practices and student needs throughout their careers. However, there is growing concern in many countries that traditional forms of professional development in the form of one-off courses or seminars have failed to live up to that promise. Reorienting professional development towards the most effective forms of continuing learning and fostering teachers’ collaboration in schools are critical to support high-quality teaching. This Policy Brief draws on evidence from the OECD’s School Resources Review and beyond to explore the following questions: How to improve teachers’ access to professional learning opportunities? How to make professional development systems more effective? How to foster professional collaboration and learning in schools? How to sustain professional growth in remote and hybrid learning contexts?
  • 2-December-2020


    Education in the Western Balkans - Findings from PISA

    The Western Balkans region has clear aspirations to improve its economic competitiveness and integrate further into Europe. A highly skilled population is critical to achieving these goals, which makes creating and maintaining high quality and equitable education systems a vital part of regional development efforts. Results from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) show that learning outcomes in the region have improved over time, but that the improvement has not been equitable. Some students are performing similarly to students from countries in the European Union, while others are lagging further behind. This report, developed in co-operation with the European Commission and UNICEF, analyses PISA data in detail to identify the strengths, challenges and unique features of education systems in the Western Balkans. Drawing upon a rich knowledge base of education policy and practice in the region, it makes recommendations about how systems in the region can improve learning for all students. This report will be of interest to regional policy-makers as well as individuals who wish to learn more about education in the Western Balkans.
  • 1-December-2020


    Education in Ireland - An OECD Assessment of the Senior Cycle Review

    Ireland is undertaking a review of their senior cycle (upper secondary education) led by the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA). It aims at collecting the views of all relevant stakeholders to identify the strengths and challenges of senior cycle in its current form, and identify priority issues and actions to move forward. As part of OECD’s implementing education policies project, an OECD team was invited to support the review of Ireland’s senior cycle. The team has carried out the assessment presented here and provided strategic advice based on four analytical aspects: smart policy design, inclusive stakeholder engagement, conducive context and a coherent implementation strategy. Each one of these dimensions matters to ensure that the review of senior cycle can move forward based on evidence and with strong support from stakeholders.
  • 1-December-2020


    PISA for Development: Out-of-school assessment - Results in Focus

    PISA for Development (PISA-D) aims to make the assessment more accessible and relevant to low- and middle-income countries. This report summarises findings from the out-of-school assessment results for PISA-D. By combining the out-of-school assessment with the in-school assessment, PISA-D has been able to achieve a unique perspective on the current skills level and on the challenges that the entire population of 14-16 year-olds face. Seven countries participated in the school-based implementation of PISA-D: Cambodia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Paraguay, Senegal and Zambia.1 Four of them, namely Guatemala, Paraguay, Honduras and Senegal, also participated in the PISA-D out-of-school assessment. Panama took part in the main PISA assessment in 2018 and the PISA-D out-of-school assessment. This report provides an overview of the main results of the out-of-school assessment for the five participating countries, comparing them, where relevant, with those for the in-school students discussed in PISA in Focus #91.
  • 30-November-2020


    Building a High-Quality Early Childhood Education and Care Workforce - Further Results from the Starting Strong Survey 2018

    The work of early childhood education and care (ECEC) professionals is the major driver of the quality of an ECEC system. As evidence accumulates on the strong benefits of investing in early education, countries need effective policies to attract, maintain and retain a highly skilled workforce in the sector. This report looks at the makeup of the early childhood education and care workforce across countries, assessing how initial preparation programmes compare across different systems, what types of in-service training and informal learning activities help staff to upgrade their skills, and what staff say about their working conditions, as well as identifying policies that can reduce staff stress levels and increase well-being at work. The report also looks at which leadership and managerial practices in ECEC centres contribute to improving the skills, working conditions and working methods of staff. The OECD Starting Strong Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS Starting Strong) is the first international survey that focuses on the early childhood education and care workforce. It offers an opportunity to learn about the characteristics of ECEC staff and centre leaders, their practices at work, and their views on the profession and the sector. This second volume of findings, Building a High-Quality Early Childhood Education and Care Workforce, examines factors that influence the skills development of ECEC professionals, their working conditions and well-being at work, and leadership in ECEC centres.
  • 25-November-2020


    Curriculum Overload - A Way Forward

    For the first time, the OECD Future of Education and Skills 2030 project conducted comprehensive curriculum analyses through the co-creation of new knowledge with a wide range of stakeholders including policy makers, academic experts, school leaders, teachers, NGOs, other social partners and, most importantly, students. This report is one of six in a series presenting the first-ever comparative data on curriculum at the content level summarising existing literature, examining trends in curriculum change with challenges and strategies, and suggesting lessons learned from unintended consequences countries experienced with their curriculum reforms. Schools are constantly under pressure to keep up with the pace of changes in society. In parallel, societal demands for what schools should teach are also constantly changing; often driven by political agendas, ideologies, or parental pressures, to add global competency, digital literacy, data literacy, environmental literacy, media literacy, social-emotional skills, etc. This 'curriculum expansion' puts pressure on policy makers and schools to add new contents to already crowded curriculum. This report aims to support reflecting on questions such as 'how to avoid creating a ‘mile wide – inch deep’ curriculum?' and 'how to shift a paradigm to curriculum centred around student well-being?' It also discusses the trade-offs tied to design choices.
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