Higher level vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. What type of training is needed to meet the needs of changing economies? How should the programmes be funded? How should they be linked to academic and university programmes? How can employers and unions be engaged? The country reports in this series look at these and other questions. They form part of Skills beyond School, the OECD policy review of postsecondary vocational education and training. This report reviews vocational education and training systems in Costa Rica.
The report provides an in-depth analysis of the results from the Survey of Adult Skills related to problem solving in technology-rich environments, along with measures concerning the use of ICT and problem solving. The Nordic countries and the Netherlands have the largest proportions of adults (around 40%) who score at the higher levels in problem solving, while Ireland, Poland and the Slovak Republic have the smallest proportions of adults (around 20%) who score at those levels. Variations in countries’ proficiency in problem solving using ICT are found to reflect differences in access to the Internet and in the frequency with which adults use e-mail. The report finds that problem-solving proficiency is strongly associated with both age and general cognitive proficiency, even after taking other relevant factors into account. Proficiency in problem solving using ICT is related to greater participation in the labour force, lower unemployment, and higher wages. By contrast, a lack of computer experience has a substantial negative impact on labour market outcomes, even after controlling for other factors. The discussion considers policies that promote ICT access and use, opportunities for developing problem-solving skills in formal education and through lifelong learning, and the importance of problem-solving proficiency in the context of e-government services.
Partout dans le monde, les jeunes peinent à entrer sur le marché du travail. Dans certains pays de l’OCDE, un quart des 16-29 ans sont sans emploi et ne suivent ni études ni formation.
While access to schooling has expanded around the world, many countries have not realised the hoped-for improvements in economic and social well-being. Access to education by itself is an incomplete goal for development; many students leave the education system without basic proficiency in literacy and numeracy. As the world coalesces around new sustainable development targets towards 2030, the focus in education is shifting towards access and quality. Using projections based on data from the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and other international student assessments, this report offers a glimpse of the stunning economic and social benefits that all countries, regardless of their national wealth, stand to gain if they ensure that every child not only has access to education but, through that education, acquires at least the baseline level of skills needed to participate fully in society.
Les programmes de formation professionnelle supérieure font face à des marchés du travail qui évoluent rapidement et à des défis de plus en plus difficiles à relever. Quel type de formation est nécessaire pour répondre aux besoins d’économies en pleine mutation ? Comment financer les programmes ? Comment les relier aux programmes d’enseignement général et supérieur ? Comment associer les employeurs et les syndicats à ce processus ? C’est à ces questions, et à d’autres, que tentent de répondre les rapports nationaux de la série de l’OCDE Apprendre au-delà de l’école, qui étudie les politiques nationales en matière de formation professionnelle postsecondaire.
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The global talent pool has grown over the past decade and is expected to continue growing through to 2030. The number of young people aged 25-34 with a tertiary qualification increased by nearly 45% between 2005 and 2013 in OECD and G20 countries and is expected to keep increasing in the coming decade.
Skills and human capital are the bedrock upon which Portugal is building a new road to growth. After a challenging period characterised by high levels of unemployment, strong fiscal constraints and accelerated reform, Portugal has successfully completed a demanding adjustment programme and is setting its sights high.
The structure of education systems varies widely between countries. In order to produce internationally comparable education statistics and indicators, it is necessary to have a framework to collect and report data on education programmes with a similar level of educational content. UNESCO’s International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is the reference classification for organising education programmes and related qualifications by education levels and fields. The basic concepts and definitions of ISCED are intended to be internationally valid and comprehensive of the full range of education systems.
ISCED 2011 is the second major revision of this classification (initially developed in the 1970s and first revised in 1997). It was adopted by the UNESCO General Conference in November 2011. Prepared jointly by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), the OECD and Eurostat, this operational manual provides guidelines and explanatory notes for the interpretation of the revised classification, by each education level. It also includes country examples of programmes and qualifications that have been classified to ISCED 2011.
This manual will be useful for national statisticians collecting and reporting data on education to international organisations, as well as for policymakers and researchers interested in better understanding of these data.
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Des inégalités persistent entre les sexes dans certains domaines : les hommes sont ainsi plus nombreux à étudier les sciences, l’informatique et l’ingénierie, tandis que les femmes dominent les domaines de l’éducation, de la santé et de la protection sociale.
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Gender differences still exist in certain fields, with more men studying science, computing and engineering, and with women dominating education and health and welfare.