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OECD Policy Reviews of Vocational Education and Training (VET) - Learning for Jobs



Skills beyond School - Synthesis Report 

Higher level vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. What type of training is needed to meet the needs of changing economies? How should the programmes be funded? How should they be linked to academic and university programmes? How can employers and unions be engaged? This report synthesises the findings of the series of  country reports done on skills beyond school.


  • Chapter 1. The hidden world of professional education and training
  • Chapter 2. Enhancing the profile of professional education and training
  • Chapter 3. Three key elements of high-quality post-secondary programmes
  • Chapter 4. Transparency in learning outcomes
  • Chapter 5. Clearer pathways for learners
  • Chapter 6. Key characteristics of effective vocational systems


In OECD countries, many young people enter vocational programmes at upper secondary level. Sometimes these programmes are linked to workplace training, and sometimes they are formal apprenticeships, alternating on-the-job learning with school-based training. Despite its international diversity, some common issues and challenges remain. For example:

  • how to balance the needs of students and employers in the provision of training;
  • the skills required by VET teachers and trainers;
  • the extent to which the benefits of workplace training can be fully exploited;
  • the most effective models for engaging employers and unions;
  • how better measures of labour market outcomes can be developed, and compared across countries.

Learning for Jobs, the thematic review of initial VET, looks at these issues among others. The work got under way in 2007 and, following 17 country reviews across the globe, was completed with the publication of a final comparative report entitled Learning for Jobs, in 2010.
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Summary of the final comparative report

Key policy messages

Pointers for policy development


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Learning for Jobs

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Skills Beyond School Synthesis Report PDF


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