Italy is recovering after a deep and long recession. Structural reforms, accommodative monetary and fiscal conditions, and low commodity prices have spearheaded the ongoing economic recovery.
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This paper surveys a broad range of studies and highlights the main findings of the empirical literature regarding business finance and productivity.
Sweden ranks among the OECD’s frontrunners in terms of gender equality. Women have a high employment rate, outperform men in education and are well represented in government and parliament.
The Swedish economy has been growing at over 3% over the past two years. Output is now more than 25% above its 2005 level, which dwarfs the achievements of the major advanced economies, including Germany and the United States, and its Nordic neighbours alike.
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Jon Pareliussen - Curriculum Vitae
Equality, a long-standing hallmark of Swedish society, carries multiple benefits in terms of economic performance, trust, opportunity and well-being.
Italy is recovering from a deep and long recession. Structural reforms, accommodative monetary and fiscal conditions, and low commodity prices have helped the economy to turn the corner. The Jobs Act, part of a wide and ambitious structural reform programme, and social security contribution exemptions have improved the labour market and raised employment. Yet, the recovery remains weak and productivity continues to decline. Returning the banking system to health will be crucial to revive growth and private investment. More investment in infrastructure will be essential to raise productivity. The government has made significant progress on tackling structural impediments to growth and productivity. Yet public-administration inefficiencies, slow judicial processes, poorly designed regulation and weak competition still make it difficult to do business in Italy. Labour and capital resources are trapped in low-productivity firms, which hold down wages and well-being. Innovative start-ups and SMEs continue to suffer from difficult access to bank and equity finance. Literacy scores are low and job-skill mismatch is one of the highest among OECD countries, depressing earnings and well-being. Many workers are under-skilled in the jobs they hold, highlighting mismatches between workers skills and those required by employers. Improving the education system and labour market policies are crucial to raising real wages, job satisfaction and living standards. The Jobs Act and the Good School reform go in the right direction and need to be fully implemented.
SPECIAL FEATURES: RAISING INVESTMENT; ENHANCING SKILLS
L'Italie connaît une reprise après une récession profonde et durable. Les réformes structurelles, les conditions monétaires et budgétaires accommodantes et le bas niveau des prix des produits de base y ont contribué.
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Zuzana Smidova - Curriculum Vitae
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Vincent Koen - Curriculum Vitae