This paper examines the effects of exports on employment (i.e. the number of workers), working-hours, and total worker-hours (i.e. employment times working-hours) in Japan.
Imports tend to bring wages up for skilled workers rather than push wages down, according to this study of the relationship between wages and trade in 55 countries and 40 industries. This positive effect is evidence of the increased productivity of firms who import inputs.
Exchange rate levels affect trade flows in agriculture and in the manufacturing and mining sector in China, the Euro area and the United States, though they do not explain in their entirety the trade imbalances in these three economies, this paper finds.
Physical and human capital (especially second- and third-level education), financial development and some aspects of labour market institutions are important policy and institutional areas that determine comparative advantage today, according to this paper.
Advance rulings, formalities and procedures, information availability and inter-agency cooperation are the policy areas with the greatest impact on trade volumes and trade costs, according to OECD trade facilitation indicators studied in this report.
A co-ordinated multilateral removal of fossil-fuel consumption subsidies over the 2013-2020 period would increase global trade volumes by 0.1% by 2020, according to this report.
Trade in tasks represents the latest turn in a virtuous cycle of deepening specialisation of labour, expansion of the market and productivity growth. This paper analyses the task content of goods and services and sheds light on structural changes that take place following trade liberalisation.
How is international trade affected by climate change mitigation measures relating to non-product-related processes and production methods (PPMs)? This study looks at PPM measures adopted in the United States, the European Union, Canada and other countries.
Tariffs, government policies and availability of credit and electricity are among the factors that restrict the trade expansion of developing countries. This report identifies and quantifies these constraints, and includes case studies of Azerbaijan and Uganda.
Trade liberalisation in the information and communications technology (ICT) sector, a major contributor to innovation and productivity growth, can help foster competition and reduce prices for consumers, according to this study.