This publication provides preliminary, quantitative estimates of direct budgetary support and tax expenditures supporting the production or consumption of fossil fuels in selected OECD member countries. The information has been compiled as part of the OECD’s programme of work to develop a better understanding of environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). It has been undertaken as an exercise in transparency, and to inform the international dialogue on fossil-fuel subsidy reform. It is also intended to inform the ongoing efforts of G20 nations to reform fossil-fuel subsidies.
For each of the 24 OECD countries covered, the Inventory provides a succinct summary of its energy economy, and of the budgetary and tax-related measures provided at the central-government level (and, in the case of federal countries, for selected sub-national units of government) relating to fossil-fuel production or consumption.
Many measures listed in this inventory are relative preferences within a particular country’s tax system rather than absolute support that can be readily compared across countries, and for that reason no national totals are provided.
Low stocks to use ratios of recent years were one of the contributory factors to the grain price spike in 2007-08, says this paper on international stockholding arrangements with economic provisions for stabilising world agricultural commodity prices.
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A first step to facilitating trade in energy-efficient products is to encourage developing and emerging economies to reform their policies in trade and energy-pricing, according to this paper which draws on work by Japan’s Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).
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Résultats de leurs flux de trésorerie pour les crédits à l’exportation bénéficiant d’un soutien public pour 2010 et les années précédentes, exprimés en droits de tirage spéciaux (DTS).
Trade policy reforms have a role to play in reducing large current account imbalances, this paper finds. A multilateral and co-ordinated approach to reducing imbalances, involving macroeconomic, exchange rate and structural reforms, is essential for achieving maximum benefits for all countries.<
Previous meetings of the Working Party on International Trade in Goods and Trade in Services Statistics (WPTGS), the OECD-Eurostat Experts in International Trade Statistics (ITS) and the OECD-Eurostat Experts in Trade in Services Statistics (TIS).
Trade is essential to global economic recovery, says Professor Jagdish Bhagwati in this interview with OECD. He also challenges the fear that trade 'takes' jobs from developed countries, pointing out that firms from developing countries are now creating jobs in richer economies.
The 'phantom of protectionism', gender inequalities, and the need to better distribute the benefits of open trade - all feature in this entertaining OECD Insights blog post with a varied and colourful cast including Senator Smoot, Lady Chatterley, Bobby Darin and King James!
Greater trade openness does not necessarily have an adverse effect on employment, and labour market mobility and flexibility can help countries gain from globalisation, according to this comparison of Denmark and Spain.
The most open sectors of the Chilean economy show higher wages relative to the other sectors, according to this analysis of the relationship between wages and levels of trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) openness in twenty-nine sectors in Chile.