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The G20 needs to go structural, social, and green! With fiscal and monetary policy room nearly exhausted, structural reforms are the best choices, sometimes the only choice. The OECD battle cry in this regard has been unchanged since 2008: “go structural!”.
A good produced in the European Union and exported to the United States may include raw materials from China, Australia, and Malaysia, and it may use services from Japan, Canada, and India. Goods and services are no longer produced in one country and sold to consumers in a second country; production is fragmented around the world and components are traded across borders multiple times.
Les chaînes de valeur mondiales (CVM) constituent un aspect essentiel de l’économie mondiale qui a des effets sur la croissance, l’emploi et le développement, mais il reste de nombreux défis à relever pour que tous les pays et toutes les entreprises aient la possibilité d’y participer et d'en bénéficier.
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Analysis for Australia from OECD trade facilitation indicators that identify areas where countries can improve border procedures, reduce trade costs, boost trade flows and reap greater benefits from international trade.
International trade produces income gains, but increased trade exposure also creates some challenges that require complementary policies to maximise the benefits of trade. This paper looks at how Australia has dealt with these issues in recent years.
Transparent design and implementation of domestic regulation reduces business costs for the public and private sector, according to these case studies from Australia, the European Union, the United Kingdom and the United States.
The Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009: Maintaining Momentum report presents the results of the second monitoring exercise of the Aid for Trade Initiative and documents its success so far.
Studies of the Mexico-USA avocado trade; Australian dairy industry; Chilean agro-food sector; Kenyan cut flower sector; agricultural reform in New Zealand; fisheries in Denmark and seafood in Thailand.
Studies include: textile and clothing sectors in Bangladesh, Colombia, Lesotho, Mauritius, USA, Australia and the Slovak Republic; the steel industry in Europe and the US; and shipbuilding in the EU, Japan and Australia.
Case studies include: motor vehicle sector in Japan, Poland, South Africa and Australia; health services in the USA and Mexico, Japan, Philippines and Thailand; international IT sourcing in the United States, India and Europe plus IBM and Infosys.