States of Fragility 2018

Three years into the 2030 Agenda it is already apparent that those living in fragile contexts are the furthest behind. Not all forms of fragility make it to the public’s eye: fragility is an intricate beast, sometimes exposed, often lurking underneath, but always holding progress back. Conflict, forced displacement, violent extremism, famine etc. are all causes and consequences of fragility. Hence the need to better understand, anticipate and respond to fragility. States of Fragility 2018 exposes the critical challenge posed by fragility in achieving the aspirations of the 2030 Agenda, sustainable development and peace. It highlights twelve key aspects of fragility, defying common assumptions and simplistic categorisation. It documents progress made in fragile situations on attaining sustainable development, unveiling exit doors from the fragility trap. It then illustrates the current state of financing to address fragility and suggests more effective approaches, accounting for its multidimensionality. Above all, the report aims to strike a balance between fragility's inherent complexity and the degree of simplicity that is required for efficient policy and decision making, namely through systems-based thinking; longer-term, consistent aid plans; the financing of peace; and a persistent focus on human beings.

Published on July 17, 2018Also available in: French


Abbreviations and acronyms
Executive summary
What main trends currently affect the fragility landscape?
What are the key findings from contexts affected by fragility?
How are fragile contexts faring in achieving sustainable development?
What official development assistance went to fragile contexts?
What are different methods to measure aid flows for preventing fragility, conflict and violence and for sustaining peace?
What sources of external development finance are available to fragile contexts?
What sources of internal resources are available to fragile contexts?
What do financial flows look like using a multidimensional lens?
What is the right financing for fragile contexts?
How can the international community better address fragility today?
Methodological annex
Powered by OECD iLibrary


SOF 2018 thumbnail‌   

This report shows that, without action, more than 80% of the world’s poorest will be living in fragile contexts by 2030. This means that development actors across many sectors will need to better grasp the unique challenges of development in fragile contexts if the ambitions of the Sustainable Development Goals are to be met.

Key messages:

1. We must recognise fragility if we want a better world.
2. We will accept complexity and address all dimensions of fragility.
3. We will invest in more and smarter aid in fragile contexts.
4. We will step up our efforts on prevention, peace and security.
5. We will invest in the data to better understand, anticipate and respond to multiple states of fragility.
6. We will support the capacity of governments to deliver inclusive solutions to their own states of fragility.
7. We will never lose sight of the end goal of delivering hope and better lives for all people in fragile contexts.

Read the Highlights



ODA disbursements to the 58 fragile contexts identified in the 2018 fragility framework available here.


OECD 2018 States of Fragility Framework:

The OECD introduced a new multidimensional fragility framework in 2016 in order to better reflect fragility’s complexity and to highlight those contexts that require differentiated attention. The 2018 edition of the framework is an update of the previous version with the most recent available data.

  • Methodology and complete data files can be found on GitHub.





Methodology for the selection of sector codes of the OECD Creditor Reporting System (CRS):



OECD work on Crises and Fragility


2016 States of Fragility 2016, Understanding Violence
2015 States of Fragility 2015: Meeting Post-2015 Ambitions
2014 Fragile States 2014, Domestic Revenue Mobilisation in Fragile States
2013 Fragile States 2013: Resource flows and trends in a shifting world
  More publications on Crises and Fragility