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This paper studies the interaction between different actors in the policy-making process of fiscal transfer reform in Colombia, analysing this reform and showing that economic context and institutional factors were fundamental in achieving the reform.
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This paper studies technological upgrades in China and India, which export products associated with productivity levels higher than their income level. China is the world's largest exporter of high-tech products. India has been more successful in business and IT services exports.
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This paper studies sources of technological upgrading in China and India. What is striking about the impressive growth of China and (to a lesser degree) India is that they export products associated with a high productivity level that is much higher than a country at their income level. China’s export bundle has changed dramatically, diversifying into technology intensive products.
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Labour disputes have intensified in China in recent years, alongside the labour shortages and wage inflation, particularly since 2008 when several Chinese labour related laws were issued or updated. This paper describes basic situations of labour disputes and examines the determinants of labour disputes from macro and micro perspectives
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This paper documents the increase in labour disputes in China and seeks to understand their determinants. It was written as a background document for the Perspectives on Global Development 2012: Social cohesion in a shifting world along with case studies on Chile and India.
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Updated estimates of the additional financial resources needed in developing countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are presented in this paper. The international community needs to broaden its notion of development co-operation to reach the MDGs by the 2015 deadline.
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This paper joins the debate on the size of the middle class in Latin America, analysing its structure and characteristics. The paper investigates inter-class mobility potential and its evolution over time.
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In this paper, we study political economy aspects and the policy making process of reforms in what we identify as the five critical steps through the “life cycle” of a policy reform: the Planning, Dialogue, Adoption, Implementation and Sustainability stages.
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Based on historical databases on SWFs’ transactions, this paper shows that SWFs can facilitate up to 50% of the investment needs in infrastructure in Africa over the next decade. However, there are specific barriers to SWF investments, both in the short and longer term.
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With the recent boost of emerging economies in African economic relations, a new philosophy of development co-operation is gaining momentum. Challenges for African governments are to define a clear strategy, to ensure maintenance and to enhance their bargaining position.