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Reports


  • 17-March-2020

    English

    SME Policy Index: Eastern Partner Countries 2020 - Assessing the Implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe

    The SME Policy Index: Eastern Partner Countries 2020 – Assessing the Implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe is a unique benchmarking tool to assess and monitor progress in the design and implementation of SME policies against EU and international best practice. It is structured around the ten principles of the Small Business Act for Europe (SBA), which provide a wide range of pro-enterprise measures to guide the design and implementation of SME policies. This report marks the third edition in this series, following assessments in 2012 and 2016. It provides a comprehensive overview of the state of play in the implementation of the ten SBA principles, and monitors progress made since 2016. It also identifies remaining challenges affecting SMEs in the Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries and provides recommendations to address them based on EU and international good practice examples. The 2020 edition also features a novelty: An assessment of three new dimensions going beyond core SME policy (competition, contract enforcement and business integrity) looking at key structural reform priorities that are critical to establishing a level playing field for enterprises of all sizes and ownership types.
  • 13-March-2020

    English

    Illicit financial flows: Artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Ghana and Liberia

    Illicit financial flows (IFFs) generated by the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) sector in West Africa have historically contributed to conflict and instability, although it would be a mistake to classify this issue as a criminal matter, given its links to formal and informal networks and local livelihoods. This study examines IFFs associated with the ASGM sector in Ghana and Liberia and reveals a complex web of informal and illicit activity associated with IFFs, with detrimental consequences for development. It focuses on gold because of its prominence in the West African Region and artisanal small-scale mining (ASM), rather than large-scale mining (LSM). Further, ASMG is largely informal and consequently more vulnerable to exploitation by criminal networks, and plays a prominent role as a local livelihood. This case study is relatively narrow in focus, providing insights into the nature and scope of ASGM activities and their resulting IFFs, and making several observations on those areas where action could be taken in an effort to reduce IFF risks. The study selected Ghana and Liberia as two countries where research could be conducted, and where gold is a major industry.
  • 9-March-2020

    English

    Women and climate change in the Sahel

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the gendered impacts of climate change in the Sahel. In particular, it explores the ways in which gender inequality is a critical factor in understanding vulnerability and resilience efforts concerning climate change. It shows that the current climate crisis is affecting livelihoods throughout the Sahel in pronounced ways. In a region highly dependent upon subsistence agriculture and pastoralist livelihoods, climate variability and environmental degradation have made such livelihoods difficult to sustain, the effects of which have broad ranging impacts on social and economic systems. Consequently, migration, livelihood adaptation, social unrest, and political instability emerge from the ecological challenges the Sahel is facing. Those with the resources to respond to and prepare for future climate events will be better equipped to navigate the climate crisis. Unfortunately, those resources are rarely equally distributed at the household, community, and state levels. In particular, gender inequalities within the Sahel pose a very real challenge for adaptation and resilience strategies as states and global institutions make interventions to support at risk populations. The paper then explores what development and state institutions are doing to resolve gender inequity through climate resilience policy, and where these efforts are falling short. The paper concludes with some strategies to improve opportunities for gender equity and climate resilience based on field research within the Sahel.
  • 9-mars-2020

    Français

    Femmes et conflits en Afrique de l'Ouest

    L’objectif de cette note est d’analyser l’évolution temporelle et spatiale des violences impliquant les femmes en Afrique de l’Ouest au cours des 20 dernières années. Une première partie montre que le nombre de victimes civiles des conflits ouest-africains dépasse désormais celui attribué aux batailles entre le gouvernement et les groupes armés. Le contrôle de la population civile est désormais devenu l’un des enjeux majeurs des insurrections de la région. Cette évolution conduit à une augmentation des violences faites aux femmes, qui sont souvent les premières victimes des luttes identitaires. Une seconde partie montre que les femmes participent également aux actes de violence, notamment par le biais des attentats-suicides dans le bassin du lac Tchad. Ce phénomène est cependant en forte diminution du fait de la perte de contrôle territorial de Boko Haram depuis le milieu des années 2010. En conclusion, la note souligne la nécessité de mettre en œuvre des stratégies contre-insurrectionnelles qui visent primordialement à protéger les populations, notamment les femmes.
  • 6-March-2020

    English

    Why does inclusion matter? - Assessing the links between inclusive processes and inclusive outcomes

    Inclusion in terms of both process (how decisions are made and who is included in that process and how and why) and outcomes (how wealth and prosperity are distributed and shared across a population and why) is a leading priority in international development, with the Sustainable Development Goals as perhaps the most ambitious articulation of this. As the evidence overwhelmingly shows, over the long term, more open and inclusive states and societies tend to be more prosperous, effective and resilient. And yet, it is far less clear how countries that can be considered more inclusive in terms of both process and outcome got to where they are. This paper explores the relationship between inclusive governance and inclusive development, which is complex and non-linear. Analysing existing research on the politics of development, it finds that there is no automatic causal relationship between inclusion as process and inclusion as outcome in either direction. The paper then highlights several factors that have been important in fostering inclusive development through inclusive governance. By way of conclusion, the paper draws out a few key implications for how international development actors can support inclusion more effectively through more politically aware ways of thinking and working.
  • 4-March-2020

    English

    What does "inclusive governance" mean? - Clarifying theory and practice

    Inclusion in terms of both process (how decisions are made and who is included in that process and how and why) and outcomes (how wealth and prosperity are distributed and shared across a population and why) is a leading priority in international development, with the Sustainable Development Goals as perhaps the most ambitious articulation of this. As the evidence overwhelmingly shows, over the long term, more open and inclusive states and societies tend to be more prosperous, effective and resilient. And yet, it is far less clear how countries that today can be considered more inclusive in terms of both process and outcome got to where they are. This Note explores the relationship between inclusive governance and inclusive development. It finds that there is no automatic causal relationship between inclusion as process and inclusion as outcome in either direction. However, the Note also highlights that under certain circumstances, more inclusive processes can in fact foster more inclusive development, and it teases out several factors that have been important in in this respect. By way of conclusion, the paper draws out implications for how international development actors can support inclusion more effectively through more politically aware ways of thinking and working.
  • 4-March-2020

    English

    Mission drawdowns: Financing a sustainable peace - Sustaining gains and supporting economic stability post UN mission withdrawal

    Successful transitions are vital; providing the means to secure the gains achieved through UN missions. A carefully managed transition process is one of the best ways to guard against backslide and to ensure the continuity of essential peacebuilding and conflict prevention efforts. As part of this, it will be important to build and reinforce the essential foundations for economic stability, and to maintain financing for peace programming post-withdrawal. Therefore, the overall objective of this research was to address the systemic challenges of financing UN Mission transitions, by outlining opportunities to ensure that: the potentially negative economic impacts and disruptions of UN Mission transitions are mitigated; financing for peacebuilding programmes is sustained post mission withdrawal; and domestic economic growth is sustained and supported where possible. This paper combines global trends and research on peace operation transitions with findings from case studies in DRC (initial stages of MONUSCO transition), Haiti (handover from MINUJUSH to BINUH), Liberia (following UNMIL’s withdrawal) and Sudan (transition of UNAMID). The paper focuses on opportunities that the international community could integrate into programming, co-ordination and financing. Accordingly, the paper is structured around the three phases of transition – ongoing UN missions, the transition, and sustaining capacity and economic stability post-withdrawal.
  • 27-February-2020

    English

    OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Austria 2020

    The OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts periodic reviews of the individual development co-operation efforts of DAC members. The policies and programmes of each DAC member are critically examined once every five to six years. DAC peer reviews assess the performance of a given member, not just that of its development co-operation agency, and examine both policy and implementation. They take an integrated, system-wide perspective on the development co-operation activities of the member under review and its approach to fragility, crisis and humanitarian assistance. Austria prioritises its multilateral engagement, advocates actively on global challenges such as security and environmental sustainability, and demonstrates regional leadership. The Austrian Development Agency is delivering quality development assistance to Austria’s priority partner countries but is responsible for only a small share of Austria’s total official development assistance (ODA) effort. In the absence of a single, overarching policy vision, Austria’s ODA remains fragmented. This review looks at the opportunities for Austria to achieve a more co-ordinated and coherent whole-of-government approach. It also emphasises the need for Austria to develop a plan to increase its aid budget in line with its commitment to allocate 0.7% of its gross national income to ODA.
  • 27-February-2020

    English

    Systemic Thinking for Policy Making - The Potential of Systems Analysis for Addressing Global Policy Challenges in the 21st Century

    We live in a period of profound systemic change, and as in similar periods in the past, there is bound to be considerable instability and uncertainty before the new society and economy take shape. We have to identify actions that will shape change for the better, and help to build resilience to the inevitable shocks inherent in, and generated by, the complex system of systems constituted by the economy, society and the environment. These challenges require updating the way policies are devised and implemented, and developing more realistic tools and techniques to design those policies on the basis of appropriate data. In Systemic Thinking for Policy Making world experts from the OECD and International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) pool their expertise and experience to propose new approaches to analysing the interconnected trends and issues shaping today’s and tomorrow’s world. The authors argue that to tackle planetary emergencies linked to the environment, the economy and socio-political systems, we have to understand their systemic properties, such as tipping points, interconnectedness and resilience. They give the reader a precise introduction to the tools and techniques needed to do so, and offer hope that we can overcome the challenges the world is facing.
  • 14-February-2020

    English

    The Geography of Conflict in North and West Africa

    African governments are increasingly confronted with new forms of political violence. The situation is particularly worrying in the Sahara-Sahel where violence is on the rise. This degrading security situation has prompted African countries and their partners to intervene militarily to stabilise the region and to prevent the spread of extremism and violence against civilians. However, these initiatives face many obstacles due to the transnational nature and geography of violence. Tensions regionalise across state borders when armed groups, defeated by counter-insurgency efforts, relocate to other countries. This study maps the evolution of violence across North and West Africa, with a particular focus on Mali, Lake Chad and Libya. In the regions experiencing the highest levels of political insecurity, it identifies whether and how conflicts tend to cluster or spread, potentially across national borders. The work is based on a new spatial indicator of political violence designed to assess the long-term evolution of conflicts and provide policy options.
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