• 30-September-2017


    Illicit Financial Flows - Illicit Trade and Development Challenges in West Africa

    This report shows how criminal economies and illicit financial flows through and within West Africa affect people’s lives. It goes beyond the traditional analysis of illicit financial flows, which focuses on the value of monetary flows. The report exposes the ways in which criminal and illicit activities and resulting illicit financial flows damage governance, the economy, development and security. It presents case studies based on concrete examples from West Africa of human trafficking, drug smuggling, counterfeit goods, gold mining and terrorism financing. It identifies networks and drivers – in the region or elsewhere – that allow these criminal economies to thrive, by feeding and facilitating these activities and the circulation of illicitly-obtained revenue. It also examines the impacts on local communities, such as changes in wealth distribution, power dynamics and the degree to which illicit money undermines social organisation.

    This book proposes a policy framework for both source and destination countries of illicit flows that looks beyond the concerns of developed countries to enhance development prospects at the local level and respond to the needs of the most vulnerable stakeholders. Combating criminal economies and preventing illicit financial flows will require sustained partnerships between producing and consuming countries. West Africa cannot be expected to address these challenges alone.

  • 2-June-2017


    Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development 2017 - Eradicating Poverty and Promoting Prosperity

    With the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, all nations committed to a set of universal, integrated and transformational goals and targets, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Translating the new vision of the SDGs into action is a major challenge. This year, Ministers will gather at the High-Level Political Forum of the United Nations to take stock of progress, with a particular focus on eradicating poverty and enhancing prosperity in a changing world.

    Against this backdrop, the 2017 edition of Better Policies for Sustainable Development seeks to inform policy making by showing how a policy coherence lens can support implementation efforts, drawing on OECD evidence and analysis. It identifies challenges and good institutional practices for enhancing policy coherence in SDG implementation, drawing on the experience of the early implementers of the SDGs.

    The report introduces eight building blocks for policy coherence for sustainable development as well as a conceptual “coherence monitor” to track progress on policy coherence. It also includes nine voluntary national reviews which were presented at the 2016 High-Level Political Forum of the United Nations (Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Mexico, Norway, Korea, Switzerland and Turkey).

  • 30-April-2017


    Multi-dimensional Review of Kazakhstan - Volume 2. In-depth Analysis and Recommendations

    Kazakhstan has embarked upon an ambitious reform agenda to realise its aspiration of becoming one of the top 30 global economies by 2050. The country’s economy and society have undergone deep transformations since independence. To sustain economic progress, overcome recent difficulties, and drive improvements in well-being to realise its aspirations, Kazakhstan will need to address a number of challenges to ensure its economy becomes more productive and diverse, and is sufficiently flexible and resilient in the face of an ever-shifting external environment. This next stage of economic transformation will require continuing reforms. This report discusses policy actions to address four key obstacles to development in Kazakhstan, identified in Volume 1 of this review. It presents in-depth analysis and recommendations to improve the economy’s resilience through diversification, to mobilise financing for development, to transform the role of the state in the economy, including through privatisation, and to improve the effectiveness of environmental regulations.

  • 20-avril-2017


    Examen multidimensionnel du Sénégal - Volume 1. Évaluation initiale

    Après des décennies de progrès économique et social modestes, le Sénégal renoue avec une dynamique de croissance depuis 2012. La volonté des autorités sénégalaises d'amener le pays à l'émergence à l'horizon 2035 se traduit par de nombreuses avancées, sur le plan des infrastructures par exemple ou en matière de production agricole. Toutefois, d’importants défis demeurent, notamment en matière de réduction de la pauvreté, de création d'emplois ou d'accès à des services sociaux de qualité.

    L'Examen multidimensionnel du Sénégal vise à soutenir l'élaboration du second volet de la stratégie de développement décennale, le Plan Sénégal Émergent 2014-23. Ce premier volume passe en revue les performances du Sénégal et identifie les principales contraintes au développement. Il se base sur un diagnostic des évolutions macroéconomiques, des performances en matière de bien-être des citoyens, du degré de compétitivité du secteur privé, et du fonctionnement du système institutionnel. Ce volume identifie trois contraintes majeures au développement : les faiblesses du système éducatif ; les dysfonctionnements du régime et de l’administration fiscale dans la mobilisation des ressources ; et la faible efficacité de l'État sénégalais.

    Le deuxième volume proposera des recommandations pour lever les contraintes majeures identifiées et le troisième analysera les modalités de leur mise en oeuvre.

  • 14-April-2017


    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Costa Rica 2017

    Costa Rica’s successful economic performance and social achievements realised over the last three decades are widely acknowledged. GDP per capita has steadily increased at higher rates than in most Latin American countries as the economy has evolved along its development path from a rural and agriculture-based to a more diversified economy integrated in global value chains. But Costa Rica faces challenges and must enhance and broaden the basis for productivity growth by strengthening its innovation system and enhancing the role of science, technology and innovation in addressing its national development goals.

  • 7-April-2017


    Agricultural Policies in the Philippines

    This report analyses Philippine agricultural policy. Agriculture provides 30% of total employment in the Philippines and represents 11% of its Gross Domestic Product. The Philippines has had notable recent overall economic success, yet improving agricultural performance remains challenging. Productivity growth lags behind other Southeast Asian countries, and a number of policy distortions hinder progress. With agricultural land resources also under pressure from frequent natural disasters, rising population and urbanisation, the report offers a series of recommendations to improve the sector’s performance and its ability to adapt to climate change.

  • 28-March-2017


    Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development in Georgia

    Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development in Georgia is the result of a project carried out by the Caucasus Research Resource Center (CRRC-Georgia) and the OECD Development Centre, in collaboration with the State Commission on Migration Issues (SCMI) and with support from the European Union. The project aimed to provide policy makers with evidence on the way migration influences specific sectors – the labour market, agriculture, education and investment and financial services – and, in turn, how sectoral policies affect migration. The report addresses three dimensions of the migration cycle that have changed remarkably in Georgia over the last 20 years: emigration, remittances and return.

    The results of the empirical work confirm that even though migration contributes to the development of Georgia, the potential of migration is not fully exploited. One explanation is that, despite headway in the field of migration and development through the creation of the SCMI, not all policy makers in Georgia take migration sufficiently into account in their respective policy areas. Georgian authorities therefore need to adopt a more coherent policy agenda and better integrate migration into their sectoral strategies to enhance the contribution of migration to development in the country.

  • 28-March-2017


    Beyond Shifting Wealth - Perspectives on Development Risks and Opportunities from the Global South

    Emerging and developing countries have grown faster than advanced countries since the 2000s. This shifting weight of global economic activity from “the West” to “East and South” is referred to as “shifting wealth”. But in recent years, a number of factors, such as lower commodity prices, seem  to have brought this movement to a pause. Is the period of rapid growth in the emerging world over? This anthology takes stock of the situation and goes beyond the "shifting wealth" narrative. It offers a forward-looking perspective on global risks and development opportunities over the next 15 years. It collects the perspectives of thought leaders from developing and emerging economies, offering their views and solutions on the most pressing global development challenges.

    The first chapter provides the OECD Development Centre's analysis of major development trends. These trends include: slowing growth in China, the end of the commodity super cycle, increasing difficulty accessing global financial markets, demographic transitions, faltering job creation, rapid urbanisation, the negative effects of climate change and conflict and security. These challenges also provide development opportunities. Twelve thought leaders and development practitioners from the global South explore these opportunities in four thematic chapters. They deal with issues such as: structural transformation in a new macro environment; inclusive societies; energy and the environment; and new forms of development co-operation.

    The anthology provides a starting point for dialogue and exchange on these risks and challenges as well as potential solutions to them.

  • 23-March-2017


    Revenue Statistics in Latin America and the Caribbean 2017

    The Revenue Statistics in Latin America and the Caribbean publication compiles comparable tax revenue statistics for a number of Latin American and Caribbean economies, the majority of which are not OECD member countries. The model is the OECD Revenue Statistics database which is a fundamental reference, backed by a well-established methodology, for OECD member countries. Extending the OECD methodology to Latin American and Caribbean countries enables comparisons about tax levels and tax structures on a consistent basis, both among Latin American and Caribbean economies and between OECD and Latin American and Caribbean economies. This publication is jointly undertaken by the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, the OECD Development Centre, the Inter-American Center of Tax Administrations (CIAT), the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the Inter-American Development bank (IDB).

    Special features:

    • Fiscal revenues from non-renewable natural resources in Latin America and the Caribbean
    • Tax revenue and tax autonomy of sub-national governments in Latin America
  • 24-février-2017


    États de fragilité 2016 - Comprendre la violence

    La violence progresse, et elle survient là où on ne l’attend pas. Ces 15 dernières années, elle a touché 3.34 milliards d’individus, soit près de la moitié de la population de la planète. Si le nombre de conflits violents régresse, davantage d’individus meurent à cause de conflits. Les violences qui transparaissent dans les conflits armés, dans le nombre de tués et dans les flux de réfugiés sont à leur niveau le plus élevé depuis plus de 20 ans. L’extrémisme violent et le terrorisme sont eux aussi en hausse. De surcroît, le coût économique de la violence s’alourdit : l’impact économique mondial de la violence atteint le chiffre impressionnant de 13 600 milliards USD, soit l’équivalent de 13.3 % du PIB mondial. Et les personnes les plus exposées à la violence sont les civils, en particulier les enfants et les femmes.

    États de fragilité 2016 : Comprendre la violence examine de très près la violence dans le monde – et ce qu’il faudrait faire face à ce phénomène. Ce rapport met en lumière les dernières réflexions sur la violence, présente une nouvelle approche fondée sur les risques permettant le suivi des différentes dimensions de la fragilité et étudie les flux financiers destinés aux contextes de fragilité. Il ressort de ce rapport que les efforts déployés en matière de développement, de paix et de sécurité dans le monde en développement n’ont pas été suffisants au regard de la nouvelle réalité de la violence. Il nous faut consacrer davantage de ressources et d’attention à la lutte contre la violence. Et si nous voulons être efficaces, il nous faut mettre les individus, et en particulier les jeunes, au centre de nos efforts.

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