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Reports


  • 29-janvier-2021

    Français

    Les membres du Comité d'aide au développement et la société civile

    L’agenda 2030 pour le développement durable est clair sur la nécessité d’impliquer les organisations de la société civile (OSC) dans la mise en œuvre et le suivi des objectifs de développement durable. Grâce à leur capacité à faire entendre dans les processus de développement la voix de ceux qui sont en première ligne de la lutte contre la pauvreté, les inégalités et la vulnérabilité, les OSC peuvent contribuer à ce que personne ne soit laissé pour compte. Afin de travailler au maximum de leur potentiel, elles ont besoin que les membres du Comité d'aide au développement (CAD) leur permettent d’évoluer dans des environnements favorables. Cette étude fournit un examen complet des différentes manières dont les membres du CAD soutiennent la société civile et travaillent avec elle. Elle fait valoir qu'ils peuvent faire davantage pour améliorer leurs modalités de collaboration avec la société civile ainsi que leurs pratiques. À cette fin, les recommandations concrètes de ce rapport pour approfondir la discussion avec les membres du CAD, les OSC et d'autres acteurs seront développés sous la forme d'une orientation ou d'une recommandation sur les manières de travailler plus efficacement avec la société civile, et donc de rendre les environnements des OSC plus favorables.
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  • 16-December-2020

    English

    Blended Finance in the Least Developed Countries

    The least developed countries (LDCs) are the furthest from achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). They are also likely to be hit the hardest by the COVID-19 crisis and badly need the type of additional commercial resources that blended finance can unlock. Yet evidence shows that they are still missing out and these commercial resources flow to middle-income countries instead. How can this be fixed? Blended Finance in the Least Developed Countries 2020, the third edition of the joint OECD-UNCDF report, draws from consultations with and contributions by blended finance experts, LDC governments, UN missions, donors, civil society and research institutions and builds on OECD data and analysis on private finance mobilised by official development finance. The report provides an update on the deployment of blended finance in LDCs. It also analyses its potential role in helping those countries recover from the COVID-19 crisis, and provides recommendations for unlocking capital for the achievement of the SDGs in LDCs, as called for in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda.
  • 15-December-2020

    English

    Local Public Finance and Capacity Building in Asia - Issues and Challenges

    Subnational governments’ capacity to effectively fund and deliver public services are crucial for the realisation of the potential benefits of decentralisation. However, subnational capacities often suffer from significant weaknesses, ranging from inadequate assignments of own-revenues, through to flaws in tax administration, the design of intergovernmental transfers, spending assignments, and various aspects of public financial management. The volume discusses how better diagnostics and more strategic reforms can contribute to easing the resource constraints on subnational governments, as well as creating appropriate incentives for these governments to improve performance. The volume includes studies of the enabling conditions for subnational capacity-building in Asia, as well as focused studies of China and India's fiscal relations challenges.
  • 14-December-2020

    English

    Linking Indigenous Communities with Regional Development in Australia

    There are approximately 800,000 Indigenous Australians, which is 3.3% of Australia’s total population. Indigenous Australians are custodians of the world’s oldest living continuous culture and make a vital contribution to contemporary Australian society. Indigenous Australians are also important for the future of the national economy. For example, the amount of land with Indigenous ownership and interest has increased significantly in the last 50 years and now covers approximately half of Australia’s land mass. Indigenous Australians play an important role in the development of regional economies. Compared to the non-Indigenous population, Indigenous peoples are more likely to be located in predominantly rural regions. However, significant gaps in socio-economic outcomes with non-Indigenous Australians remain and these gaps are larger in rural regions. The report provides three key recommendations to improve economic outcomes for Indigenous Australians: improving the quality of the statistical framework and the inclusion of Indigenous peoples in the governance of data; promoting entrepreneurship to provide opportunities for Indigenous peoples to use assets and resources in ways that align with their objectives for development; and, implementing an approach to policies that is adapted to places, and empowers Indigenous institutions and communities.
  • 14-December-2020

    English

    Production Transformation Policy Review of Shenzhen, China - A Journey of Continuous Learning

    Shenzhen is a stellar case of growth and economic transformation. Since its establishment as one of China’s first four Special Economic Zones in 1980, it has evolved at breakneck speed. Shenzhen transformed from a fishing village to a major world trade hub and is now home to global innovators in electronics. The Production Transformation Policy Review (PTPR) of Shenzhen, China reviews the city’s changing policy approaches, focusing on the shift from an assembly to a manufacturing centre and more recently to an innovation and start-up hub. Through a comprehensive assessment of Shenzhen’s experience, this review offers insights into the range of policies and strategies employed to stimulate industrial upgrading and learning in China. It provides lessons and actionable policy recommendations for the growth of cities and emerging economies in their catching-up journey. The PTPR of Shenzhen, China has been carried out in the framework of the OECD Initiative for Policy Dialogue on Global Value Chains, Production Transformation and Development and has benefitted from government-business dialogues and international peer learning (University of Seoul, Korea; University of Georgetown, USA and Digital India Foundation, India).
  • 7-décembre-2020

    Français

    Dynamiques du développement en Afrique 2020 - Transformation digitale et qualité de l'emploi

    Dynamiques du développement en Afrique tire les leçons des expériences des cinq régions du continent – Afrique australe, centrale, de l'Est, du Nord et de l'Ouest – pour développer des recommandations politiques et partager les bonnes pratiques. Étayé par les plus récentes statistiques, son décryptage des dynamiques de développement vise à permettre aux leaders africains de réaliser la vision stratégique de l’Agenda 2063 à tous les niveaux : continental, régional, national et local. L'édition 2020 explore le potentiel de la transformation digitale pour créer des emplois de qualité et réaliser l'Agenda 2063, en vue de renforcer la résilience des économies africaines face à la récession mondiale déclenchée par la pandémie de COVID-19. Le rapport cible quatre axes politiques principaux pour soutenir la transformation digitale de l'Afrique : réduire la fracture digitale ; soutenir l'innovation locale ; dynamiser les travailleurs indépendants ; et accélérer l'harmonisation, la mise en œuvre et le suivi des stratégies digitales. Cette édition comprend un nouveau chapitre examinant les perspectives de financement du développement de l'Afrique face à la crise économique mondiale de 2020. Dynamiques du développement en Afrique a pour vocation de nourrir le débat entre les membres de l’Union africaine, ainsi que les citoyens, entrepreneurs et chercheurs. Son ambition est de participer à une nouvelle coopération entre pays et régions, qui soit tournée vers l’apprentissage mutuel et la préservation de nos biens communs. Fort de cette vision, ce rapport est le fruit de la coopération entre la Commission de l’Union africaine et le Centre de développement de l’OCDE.
  • 4-December-2020

    English

    How to Select Buyers of Oil, Gas and Minerals - Guidance for State-Owned Enterprises

    The sale of publicly-owned oil, gas and minerals can have a significant impact on the development trajectory of resource-rich developing and emerging economies due to the large volume of commodities sold and the amount of money involved. Therefore, getting the buyer selection process right is a crucial step to prevent potential public revenue losses that can arise through sub-optimal allocation and corruption. This Guidance is intended to strengthen state-owned enterprises (SOEs)’ capacity to market commodities and optimise the value of resources sold. It explains how SOEs can set up transparent and competitive buyer selection procedures that reduce discretion, close opportunities for favouritism and corruption, ultimately leading to increased revenues for improved development outcomes. Based on the review of existing selection and procurement processes, the Guidance provides recommendations for countering key corruption challenges at each step of the buyer selection process, and identifies examples of best practices. This Guidance complements the work of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) on recommended disclosures of buyer selection procedures by SOEs.
  • 27-November-2020

    English

    Civil service pension reform in developing countries - Experiences and lessons

    This study examines reforms to civil service pension arrangements in a number of developing countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America. These arrangements are a significant component of public-sector remuneration in many developing countries and they can carry substantial risks, not only financial but also political and social. This study takes a long-term and systemic approach to civil service pensions, charting their evolution as part of a country’s social protection provision and with reference to public-sector remuneration as well as broader institutional developments. It demonstrates the short- and long-term costs of these arrangements against spending on other social protection interventions, notably poverty-targeted social assistance. Through a series of case studies, it examines the motivation behind countries’ decision to reform their civil service schemes, as well as the challenges they faced when undertaking these reforms and their overall impact. The study is intended to support countries planning to reform their civil service pension schemes by identifying key principles and specific policies they might consider in this process; it can also support governments not planning such reforms to better understand the financial dynamics of their civil service schemes.
  • 24-novembre-2020

    Français

    Examens de l'OCDE sur la coopération pour le développement : Belgique 2020

    Le Comité d’aide au développement (CAD) de l’Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) examine les efforts individuels de coopération pour le développement de chacun de ses membres tous les cinq à six ans. Les examens par les pairs du CAD analysent la performance d’ensemble du membre considéré, et non pas seulement celle de son organisme de coopération pour le développement, et examinent les aspects ayant trait tant à la politique, aux programmes et aux systèmes de coopération. Ils couvrent dans leur globalité les activités de coopération pour le développement et d’aide humanitaire, ainsi que les approches vis-à-vis de la fragilité et des crises du membre soumis à examen en les replaçant dans le système envisagé dans son entier. La Belgique est un avocat incontournable de la cause des pays les moins avancés ou en situation de fragilité, ainsi qu’un solide partenaire humanitaire. Attachée aux principes de partenariats, elle donne aux organisations multilatérales, de la société civile et du secteur privé les moyens de réaliser leur mandat. Alors que la Belgique sort d’une période de réforme institutionnelle, cet examen par les pairs donne des pistes pour renforcer le pilotage stratégique de sa coopération au développement, approfondir les synergies entre ses actions de développement, humanitaire et en faveur de la paix, et améliorer la gestion des ressources humaines.
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  • 23-November-2020

    English

    CO2 emissions embodied in international trade and domestic final demand - Methodology and results using the OECD Inter-Country Input-Output Database

    This paper describes the sources and methods used to estimate carbon emissions embodied in final demand and international gross trade for 65 economies over the period 2005-2015. Earlier OECD analyses of carbon footprints, accounting for global production networks, helped raise awareness of divergences between territorial and resident principles, and between production-based and consumption-based carbon emissions. Understanding the differences in these measures is important for governments to better understand and address greenhouse gas mitigation options. Thus, a new refined methodology was applied to allocate territorial emissions to production-based emissions (industries and households) using OECD Inter-Country Input-Output tables and International Energy Agency (IEA) CO2 emissions from fuel combustion statistics. In particular, this methodology introduces: 1) explicit distinctions between territorial and resident principles, economic output and final demand-based emissions and emissions embodied in gross imports and exports; 2) estimates by major fuel combustion sources; and 3) fuel purchases by non-resident industries and households.
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