The OECD has initiated PISA for Development (PISA-D) in response to the rising need of developing countries to collect data about their education systems and the capacity of their student bodies. This report aims to compare and contrast approaches regarding the instruments that are used to collect data on (a) component skills and cognitive instruments, (b) contextual frameworks, and (c) the implementation of the different international assessments, as well as approaches to include children who are not at school, and the ways in which data are used. It then seeks to identify assessment practices in these three areas that will be useful for developing countries. This report reviews the major international and regional large-scale educational assessments: large-scale international surveys, school-based surveys and household-based surveys. For each of the issues discussed, there is a description of the prevailing international situation, followed by a consideration of the issue for developing countries and then a description of the relevance of the issue to PISA for Development.
This report provides a systematic review and empirical evidence related to the experiences of middle-income countries and economies participating in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2000 to 2015. PISA is a triennial survey that aims to evaluate education systems worldwide by testing the skills and knowledge of 15-year-old students. To date, students representing more than 70 countries and economies have participated in the assessment, including 44 middle-income countries, many of which are developing countries receiving foreign aid. This report provides answers to six important questions about these middle-income countries and their experiences of participating in PISA: What is the extent of developing country participation in PISA and other international learning assessments? Why do these countries join PISA? What are the financial, technical, and cultural challenges for their participation in PISA? What impact has participation had on their national assessment capacity? How have PISA results influenced their national policy discussions? And what does PISA data tell us about education in these countries and the policies and practices that influence student performance?
The findings of this report are being used by the OECD to support its efforts to make PISA more relevant to a wider range of countries, and by the World Bank as part of its on-going dialogue with its client countries regarding participation in international large-scale assessments.
Kazakhstan’s economy and society have undergone deep transformations since the country declared independence in 1991. Kazakhstan’s growth performance since 2000 has been impressive, averaging almost 8% per annum in real terms and leading to job creation and progress in the well-being of its citizens. Extractive industries play an important role in the dynamism of the economy, but sources of growth beyond natural resource sectors remain underexploited. In the social arena, dimensions of well-being beyond incomes and jobs have not kept pace with economic growth.
Kazakhstan has set itself the goal of becoming one of the 30 most developed countries in the world by 2050. To sustain rapid, inclusive and sustainable growth and social progress, Kazakhstan will need to overcome a number of significant challenges. Natural-resource dependency, the concentration of economic clout and a fragile and underdeveloped financial sector limit diversification and economic dynamism. Widespread corruption still affects multiple state functions, undermines the business environment, meritocracy and entrepreneurial spirit. More generally, the state has limited capacity to fulfil some of its functions, which affects the delivery of public services like health and education, as well as the protection of the environment and the generation of skills.
Cette publication vise à combler ces lacunes en offrant une vue d’ensemble des principaux problèmes, enjeux et opportunités associés au fait d’intégrer une dimension de genre dans le soutien apporté par les bailleurs aux processus de renforcement de l’État.
The Latin American Economic Outlook 2016 is devoted to the evolving relationship between Latin America and China, as well as its prospects in the long term. China's transformation involves a gradual shift in its development strategy, including the rebalancing process from investment to consumption, the demographic transition, the structural transformation towards high value-added goods and services, and a "going-out" policy to approach other regions. This report lays the ground for discussing future trends in the relationship between China and Latin America, given these changing patterns. Based on the analysis of potential transmission channels of China’s new model to the region, which include issues on trade, finance and skills, the outlook aims to identify strategies and policy responses for Latin America to overcome development challenges. Latin America and China can complement each other further and build a mutually beneficial partnership for development.
Cette publication présente les effectifs et les caractéristiques des populations émigrées par pays d’origine avec une attention particulière portée sur les niveaux d’éducation et la situation sur le marché du travail. Elle offre aux pays d’origine un portrait détaillé de la taille et de la composition de leurs diasporas ainsi que de leur évolution depuis 2000. Elle est composée d’un chapitre de synthèse et de six chapitres régionaux : Asie et Océanie, Amérique latine et Caraïbes, pays de l’OCDE, pays européens hors OCDE et Asie centrale, Moyen-Orient et Afrique du Nord et Afrique subsaharienne. Les chapitres régionaux sont suivis d’une note régionale et des notes par pays.
The ambitious post-2015 development agenda will require financing on an unprecedented scale. Sources of external finance beyond official development assistance are becoming increasingly important. What are these sources and instruments and how can they be used to address financing gaps to ensure that we meet our development goals?
En 2013, l’APD nette d’Israël s’est élevée à 202 millions USD, soit une hausse de 2 % en termes réels relativement à 2012. Le rapport de l’APD au RNB est resté stable, avec un chiffre de 0.07%.
En 2013, l’APD nette de la Fédération de Russie s’est chiffrée à 714 millions USD, soit une augmentation de 49 % en termes réels relativement à 2012. Le rapport de l’APD au RNB est passé de 0.02 % à 0.03 %.
The SME Policy Index is a benchmarking tool designed for emerging economies to assess SME policy frameworks and monitor progress in policy implementation over time. The Index has been developed by the OECD in partnership with the European Commission, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and the European Training Foundation (ETF) in 2006.
For the Eastern Partner Countries, the assessment framework is structured around the ten principles of the Small Business Act for Europe (SBA), providing a wide-range of pro-enterprise measures to guide the design and implementation of SME policies based on good practices promoted by the EU and the OECD. It is applied to the Eastern Partner Countries for the second time since 2012.
The Index identifies strengths and weaknesses in policy design and implementation, allows for comparison across countries and measures convergence towards good practices and relevant policy standards. It aims to support governments in setting targets for SME policy development and to identify strategic priorities to further improve the business environment. It also helps to engage governments in policy dialogue and exchange good practices within the region and with OECD and EU members.