This report shows how criminal economies and illicit financial flows through and within West Africa affect people’s lives. It goes beyond the traditional analysis of illicit financial flows, which focuses on the value of monetary flows. The report exposes the ways in which criminal and illicit activities and resulting illicit financial flows damage governance, the economy, development and security. It presents case studies based on concrete examples from West Africa of human trafficking, drug smuggling, counterfeit goods, gold mining and terrorism financing. It identifies networks and drivers – in the region or elsewhere – that allow these criminal economies to thrive, by feeding and facilitating these activities and the circulation of illicitly-obtained revenue. It also examines the impacts on local communities, such as changes in wealth distribution, power dynamics and the degree to which illicit money undermines social organisation.
This book proposes a policy framework for both source and destination countries of illicit flows that looks beyond the concerns of developed countries to enhance development prospects at the local level and respond to the needs of the most vulnerable stakeholders. Combating criminal economies and preventing illicit financial flows will require sustained partnerships between producing and consuming countries. West Africa cannot be expected to address these challenges alone.
With the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, all nations committed to a set of universal, integrated and transformational goals and targets, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Translating the new vision of the SDGs into action is a major challenge. This year, Ministers will gather at the High-Level Political Forum of the United Nations to take stock of progress, with a particular focus on eradicating poverty and enhancing prosperity in a changing world.
Against this backdrop, the 2017 edition of Better Policies for Sustainable Development seeks to inform policy making by showing how a policy coherence lens can support implementation efforts, drawing on OECD evidence and analysis. It identifies challenges and good institutional practices for enhancing policy coherence in SDG implementation, drawing on the experience of the early implementers of the SDGs.
The report introduces eight building blocks for policy coherence for sustainable development as well as a conceptual “coherence monitor” to track progress on policy coherence. It also includes nine voluntary national reviews which were presented at the 2016 High-Level Political Forum of the United Nations (Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Mexico, Norway, Korea, Switzerland and Turkey).
Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development in Armenia is the result of a project carried out by the Caucasus Research Resource Center (CRRC-Armenia) and the OECD Development Centre, in collaboration with the State Migration Service (SMS) and with support from the European Union. The project aimed to provide policy makers with evidence on the way migration influences specific sectors – the labour market, agriculture, education and investment and financial services – and, in turn, how sectoral policies affect migration. The report addresses three dimensions of the migration cycle that have become an important part of the country's social and economic contexts: emigration, remittances and return. The results of the empirical work confirm that even though migration contributes to the development of Armenia, the potential of migration is not fully exploited. One explanation is that many policy makers in Armenia do not sufficiently take migration into account in their respective policy areas. Armenia therefore needs to adopt a more coherent policy agenda to do more to integrate migration into development strategies, improve co-ordination mechanisms and strengthen international co-operation. This would enhance the contribution of migration to development in the country.
Kazakhstan has embarked upon an ambitious reform agenda to realise its aspiration of becoming one of the top 30 global economies by 2050. The country’s economy and society have undergone deep transformations since independence. To sustain economic progress, overcome recent difficulties, and drive improvements in well-being to realise its aspirations, Kazakhstan will need to address a number of challenges to ensure its economy becomes more productive and diverse, and is sufficiently flexible and resilient in the face of an ever-shifting external environment. This next stage of economic transformation will require continuing reforms. This report discusses policy actions to address four key obstacles to development in Kazakhstan, identified in Volume 1 of this review. It presents in-depth analysis and recommendations to improve the economy’s resilience through diversification, to mobilise financing for development, to transform the role of the state in the economy, including through privatisation, and to improve the effectiveness of environmental regulations.
Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development in Cambodia is the result of a project carried out by the Cambodia Development Resource Institute (CDRI) and the OECD Development Centre, in collaboration with the Ministry of Interior and with support from the European Union. The project aimed to provide policy makers with evidence on the way migration influences specific sectors – the labour market, agriculture, education and investment and financial services – and, in turn, how sectoral policies affect migration. The report addresses three dimensions of the migration cycle that have become an important part of the country's social and economic contexts: emigration, remittances and return.
The results of the empirical work confirm that even though migration contributes to the development of Cambodia, the potential of migration is not fully exploited. One explanation is that migration only appears to a very limited extent in the National Strategic Development Plan. Many policy makers in Cambodia do not sufficiently take migration into account in their respective policy areas. Cambodia therefore needs to adopt a more coherent policy agenda to do more to integrate migration into its National Strategic Development Plan, improve co-ordination mechanisms and strengthen international co-operation. This would enhance the contribution of migration to development in the country.
Après des décennies de progrès économique et social modestes, le Sénégal renoue avec une dynamique de croissance depuis 2012. La volonté des autorités sénégalaises d'amener le pays à l'émergence à l'horizon 2035 se traduit par de nombreuses avancées, sur le plan des infrastructures par exemple ou en matière de production agricole. Toutefois, d’importants défis demeurent, notamment en matière de réduction de la pauvreté, de création d'emplois ou d'accès à des services sociaux de qualité.
L'Examen multidimensionnel du Sénégal vise à soutenir l'élaboration du second volet de la stratégie de développement décennale, le Plan Sénégal Émergent 2014-23. Ce premier volume passe en revue les performances du Sénégal et identifie les principales contraintes au développement. Il se base sur un diagnostic des évolutions macroéconomiques, des performances en matière de bien-être des citoyens, du degré de compétitivité du secteur privé, et du fonctionnement du système institutionnel. Ce volume identifie trois contraintes majeures au développement : les faiblesses du système éducatif ; les dysfonctionnements du régime et de l’administration fiscale dans la mobilisation des ressources ; et la faible efficacité de l'État sénégalais.
Le deuxième volume proposera des recommandations pour lever les contraintes majeures identifiées et le troisième analysera les modalités de leur mise en oeuvre.
Costa Rica’s successful economic performance and social achievements realised over the last three decades are widely acknowledged. GDP per capita has steadily increased at higher rates than in most Latin American countries as the economy has evolved along its development path from a rural and agriculture-based to a more diversified economy integrated in global value chains. But Costa Rica faces challenges and must enhance and broaden the basis for productivity growth by strengthening its innovation system and enhancing the role of science, technology and innovation in addressing its national development goals.
This report analyses Philippine agricultural policy. Agriculture provides 30% of total employment in the Philippines and represents 11% of its Gross Domestic Product. The Philippines has had notable recent overall economic success, yet improving agricultural performance remains challenging. Productivity growth lags behind other Southeast Asian countries, and a number of policy distortions hinder progress. With agricultural land resources also under pressure from frequent natural disasters, rising population and urbanisation, the report offers a series of recommendations to improve the sector’s performance and its ability to adapt to climate change.
The 2017 OECD-IDB Latin American Competition Forum takes place in Managua, Nicaragua, on 4-5 April 2017. Discussions will focus on cartels, merger control and addressing competition challenges in financial markets
The 2017 OECD Global Anti-Corruption and Integrity Forum will tackle issues related to fair competition and economic growth, the inequality gap, a level playing field for business, the public interest in policy making and trust in government and politics