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  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Indonesia’s perspective on Total Official Support for Sustainable Development (TOSSD)

    This Working Paper presents the perspective of Indonesia on the concept of total official support for sustainable development (TOSSD), the extent of TOSSD resources provided by Indonesia and the capacity of the government to report on these resources. Indonesia broadly supported TOSSD as a relevant measure for monitoring SDG implementation and proposed some adjustments to the TOSSD methodology. Estimates for TOSSD provided by Indonesia in 2017 amount to USD 6 376 million, with USD 16 million for Pillar I (cross-border flows to other developing countries) and USD 6 360 million for Pillar II (contributions to international public goods). For Indonesia, activities recorded in TOSSD should not only be assessed in financial terms, but also in terms of their sustainable development impact. This pilot study attests to Indonesia’s strong capacity to report on TOSSD Pillar I, but finds that tracking could be improved for a wider range of resources. The country also has the capacity to report on Pillar II.
  • 18-December-2020

    English

    Towards more sustainable solutions to forced displacement - What measures are donor countries applying to forced displacement in developing countries?

    The majority of forcibly displaced people worldwide are hosted by developing countries. Alternative routes to sustainable solutions for the forcibly displaced, particularly in developing countries, are drying up, and the path towards and support for local integration and longer-term development is becoming urgent. Based on a questionnaire, this report delves into the question of how donor countries are addressing forced displacement and whether the shift towards a focus incorporating the humanitarian-development-peace nexus in addressing forced displacement is tangible. It highlights lessons learned so far and proposes recommendations on broadening the current approach to addressing forced displacement in developing economies.
  • 16-décembre-2020

    Français

    Liste des bénéficiaires d'APD établie par le CAD

    La Liste du CAD présente tous les pays et territoires éligibles à l’aide au développement (APD). Il s’agit de tous les pays à revenu faible ou intermédiaire à l’exclusion des membres du G8, de l’Union européenne, et de ceux dont la date d’entrée dans l’UE est fixée.

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  • 16-December-2020

    English

    Blended Finance in the Least Developed Countries 2020 - Supporting a Resilient COVID-19 Recovery

    The least developed countries (LDCs) are the furthest from achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). They are also likely to be hit the hardest by the COVID-19 crisis and badly need the additional private finance that blended finance can unlock. Yet evidence shows that too little private finance is mobilised for investment in LDCs. How can this be fixed? The Blended Finance in the Least Developed Countries 2020 report is the third edition and second joint UNCDF-OECD report. It builds on UNCDF research and transactional experience, OECD data and analysis on private finance mobilized by official development finance, and a series consultations with and contributions by blended finance experts, LDC governments, UN missions, donors, civil society and research institutions. The report provides an update on the deployment of blended finance in LDCs. It also analyses its potential role in helping those countries recover from the COVID-19 crisis, and provides an Action Agenda for unlocking capital for the achievement of the SDGs in LDCs, as called for in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda.
  • 14-December-2020

    English

    Linking Indigenous Communities with Regional Development in Australia

    There are approximately 800,000 Indigenous Australians, which is 3.3% of Australia’s total population. Indigenous Australians are custodians of the world’s oldest living continuous culture and make a vital contribution to contemporary Australian society. Indigenous Australians are also important for the future of the national economy. For example, the amount of land with Indigenous ownership and interest has increased significantly in the last 50 years and now covers approximately half of Australia’s land mass. Indigenous Australians play an important role in the development of regional economies. Compared to the non-Indigenous population, Indigenous peoples are more likely to be located in predominantly rural regions. However, significant gaps in socio-economic outcomes with non-Indigenous Australians remain and these gaps are larger in rural regions. The report provides three key recommendations to improve economic outcomes for Indigenous Australians: improving the quality of the statistical framework and the inclusion of Indigenous peoples in the governance of data; promoting entrepreneurship to provide opportunities for Indigenous peoples to use assets and resources in ways that align with their objectives for development; and, implementing an approach to policies that is adapted to places, and empowers Indigenous institutions and communities.
  • 4-December-2020

    English

    How to Select Buyers of Oil, Gas and Minerals - Guidance for State-Owned Enterprises

    The sale of publicly-owned oil, gas and minerals can have a significant impact on the development trajectory of resource-rich developing and emerging economies due to the large volume of commodities sold and the amount of money involved. Therefore, getting the buyer selection process right is a crucial step to prevent potential public revenue losses that can arise through sub-optimal allocation and corruption. This Guidance is intended to strengthen state-owned enterprises (SOEs)’ capacity to market commodities and optimise the value of resources sold. It explains how SOEs can set up transparent and competitive buyer selection procedures that reduce discretion, close opportunities for favouritism and corruption, ultimately leading to increased revenues for improved development outcomes. Based on the review of existing selection and procurement processes, the Guidance provides recommendations for countering key corruption challenges at each step of the buyer selection process, and identifies examples of best practices. This Guidance complements the work of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) on recommended disclosures of buyer selection procedures by SOEs.
  • 27-November-2020

    English

    Civil service pension reform in developing countries - Experiences and lessons

    This study examines reforms to civil service pension arrangements in a number of developing countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America. These arrangements are a significant component of public-sector remuneration in many developing countries and they can carry substantial risks, not only financial but also political and social. This study takes a long-term and systemic approach to civil service pensions, charting their evolution as part of a country’s social protection provision and with reference to public-sector remuneration as well as broader institutional developments. It demonstrates the short- and long-term costs of these arrangements against spending on other social protection interventions, notably poverty-targeted social assistance. Through a series of case studies, it examines the motivation behind countries’ decision to reform their civil service schemes, as well as the challenges they faced when undertaking these reforms and their overall impact. The study is intended to support countries planning to reform their civil service pension schemes by identifying key principles and specific policies they might consider in this process; it can also support governments not planning such reforms to better understand the financial dynamics of their civil service schemes.
  • 24-November-2020

    English

    Climate Change: OECD DAC External Development Finance Statistics

    The OECD DAC measures and monitors development finance targeting climate change objectives using two Rio markers: Climate Change Mitigation and Climate Change Adaptation.

  • 24-novembre-2020

    Français

    Examens de l'OCDE sur la coopération pour le développement : Belgique 2020

    Le Comité d’aide au développement (CAD) de l’Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) examine les efforts individuels de coopération pour le développement de chacun de ses membres tous les cinq à six ans. Les examens par les pairs du CAD analysent la performance d’ensemble du membre considéré, et non pas seulement celle de son organisme de coopération pour le développement, et examinent les aspects ayant trait tant à la politique, aux programmes et aux systèmes de coopération. Ils couvrent dans leur globalité les activités de coopération pour le développement et d’aide humanitaire, ainsi que les approches vis-à-vis de la fragilité et des crises du membre soumis à examen en les replaçant dans le système envisagé dans son entier. La Belgique est un avocat incontournable de la cause des pays les moins avancés ou en situation de fragilité, ainsi qu’un solide partenaire humanitaire. Attachée aux principes de partenariats, elle donne aux organisations multilatérales, de la société civile et du secteur privé les moyens de réaliser leur mandat. Alors que la Belgique sort d’une période de réforme institutionnelle, cet examen par les pairs donne des pistes pour renforcer le pilotage stratégique de sa coopération au développement, approfondir les synergies entre ses actions de développement, humanitaire et en faveur de la paix, et améliorer la gestion des ressources humaines.
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  • 23-November-2020

    English

    CO2 emissions embodied in international trade and domestic final demand - Methodology and results using the OECD Inter-Country Input-Output Database

    This paper describes the sources and methods used to estimate carbon emissions embodied in final demand and international gross trade for 65 economies over the period 2005-2015. Earlier OECD analyses of carbon footprints, accounting for global production networks, helped raise awareness of divergences between territorial and resident principles, and between production-based and consumption-based carbon emissions. Understanding the differences in these measures is important for governments to better understand and address greenhouse gas mitigation options. Thus, a new refined methodology was applied to allocate territorial emissions to production-based emissions (industries and households) using OECD Inter-Country Input-Output tables and International Energy Agency (IEA) CO2 emissions from fuel combustion statistics. In particular, this methodology introduces: 1) explicit distinctions between territorial and resident principles, economic output and final demand-based emissions and emissions embodied in gross imports and exports; 2) estimates by major fuel combustion sources; and 3) fuel purchases by non-resident industries and households.
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