This report provides a systematic review and empirical evidence related to the experiences of middle-income countries and economies participating in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2000 to 2015. PISA is a triennial survey that aims to evaluate education systems worldwide by testing the skills and knowledge of 15-year-old students. To date, students representing more than 70 countries and economies have participated in the assessment, including 44 middle-income countries, many of which are developing countries receiving foreign aid. This report provides answers to six important questions about these middle-income countries and their experiences of participating in PISA: What is the extent of developing country participation in PISA and other international learning assessments? Why do these countries join PISA? What are the financial, technical, and cultural challenges for their participation in PISA? What impact has participation had on their national assessment capacity? How have PISA results influenced their national policy discussions? And what does PISA data tell us about education in these countries and the policies and practices that influence student performance?
The findings of this report are being used by the OECD to support its efforts to make PISA more relevant to a wider range of countries, and by the World Bank as part of its on-going dialogue with its client countries regarding participation in international large-scale assessments.
Transport accounts for nearly a quarter of carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion. The price attached to these emissions is critical to climate policies and emissions mitigation efforts in the sector. As the impact of emissions on climate does not depend on where CO2 is released, the price of carbon should be uniform. In reality, however, it varies immensely, reflecting the complexity of assessing climate impacts.
This report reviews the three key challenges in considering the effects of carbon dioxide emissions in economic appraisal: the valuation of carbon dioxide emissions, the treatment of uncertainty in climate change and the approach used to discounting future costs and benefits. The report reviews current approaches in selected countries (France, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States) and provides examples of good practice and recommendations for national and international policy making.
The SME Policy Index is a benchmarking tool designed for emerging economies to assess SME policy frameworks and monitor progress in policy implementation over time. The Index has been developed by the OECD in partnership with the European Commission, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and the European Training Foundation (ETF) in 2006.
For the Eastern Partner Countries, the assessment framework is structured around the ten principles of the Small Business Act for Europe (SBA), providing a wide-range of pro-enterprise measures to guide the design and implementation of SME policies based on good practices promoted by the EU and the OECD. It is applied to the Eastern Partner Countries for the second time since 2012.
The Index identifies strengths and weaknesses in policy design and implementation, allows for comparison across countries and measures convergence towards good practices and relevant policy standards. It aims to support governments in setting targets for SME policy development and to identify strategic priorities to further improve the business environment. It also helps to engage governments in policy dialogue and exchange good practices within the region and with OECD and EU members.
Si, de manière inquiétante, les perspectives pour nombre de pays de l’OCDE restent modestes, les pays de l'Asie émergente (Asie du Sud-Est, Chine et Inde) devraient connaître une croissance soutenue – bien que plus modérée que ces dernières années – à moyen terme, selon les dernières Perspectives économiques pour l’Asie du Sud-Est, la Chine et l’Inde du Centre de développement de l’OCDE.
Les représentants des ministères des finances de plusieurs pays africains se sont réunis sous les auspices de la Commission de l'Union africaine pour fixer le cadre de leur participation à la publication de leurs statistiques relatives aux recettes fiscales.
The Governance Practitioner’s Notebook takes an unusual approach for the OECD-DAC Network on Governance (GovNet). It brings together a collection of specially written notes aimed at those who work as governance practitioners within development agencies.
The OECD is committed to forging new pathways to secure a sustainable future for the planet and the world’s people. I commend Turkey for prioritising sustainable development across G20 workstreams in 2015 and look forward to continuing this important work under the Chinese Presidency in 2016.
Asian representatives from Ministries of Finance and Tax administrations gathered in Seoul, Korea on 14-15 October 2015 to discuss the framework for harmonising their revenue statistics.
A Sustainable Development Investment Partnership (SDIP) has been launched to mobilize $100 billion in private financing over five years for infrastructure projects in developing countries using development assistance to reduce risk.
In-depth discussions took place this week as the international community continues to make progress on the international tax agenda. Officials from more than 100 countries drawing from tax authorities, ministries of finance, development agencies, as well as regional and international organisations, business and civil society came together in a series of meetings hosted by the OECD.