This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Liechtenstein.
The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.
The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.
The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.
All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.
Du 21 au 23 octobre 2015, la consultation régionale et l'atelier gouvernemental sur le BEPS ont été l'occasion de discuter des résultats du Projet BEPS, et de la manière dont les pays peuvent s'engager sur un pied d'égalité dans la phase de mise en œuvre et de suivi des mesures adoptées.
Yesterday, G20 finance ministers endorsed the set of 15 actions to address base erosion and profit shifting. This is an historical moment.
Les ministres des Finances des pays du G20 ont approuvé les différentes mesures préconisées pour réformer l’ensemble des règles fiscales internationales de manière cohérente et coordonnée lors d’une réunion tenue le 8 octobre à Lima, au Pérou.
L’OCDE a présenté aujourd’hui les différentes mesures préconisées pour réformer l’ensemble des règles fiscales internationales de manière cohérente et coordonnée, qui seront examinées lors de la réunion des ministres des Finances des pays du G20 qui se tiendra le 8 octobre à Lima, au Pérou.
There are hundreds of empirical studies finding evidence of tax-motivated profit shifting, using different data sources and estimation strategies. While measuring the scope of BEPS is challenging given its complexity and existing data limitations, a number of recent studies suggest that BEPS is responsible for significant global corporate income tax (CIT) revenue losses. This report assesses currently available data and concludes that significant limitations severely constrain economic analyses of the scale and economic impact of BEPS and improved data and methodologies are required. Noting these data limitations, a dashboard of six BEPS indicators has been constructed, using different data sources and assessing different BEPS channels. These indicators provide evidence that BEPS exists and has been increasing over time. New empirical analysis estimates that the scale of global CIT revenue losses could be between USD 100 and 240 billion annually at 2014 levels. The report also presents a toolkit to assist countries evaluate the fiscal effects of BEPS countermeasures. The research also finds significant non-fiscal economic distortions arising from BEPS. The report concludes by making recommendations regarding data and monitoring tools to improve the analysis of BEPS in the future.
This report includes changes to the OECD Model Tax Convention to prevent treaty abuse. It first addresses treaty shopping through alternative provisions that form part of a minimum standard that all countries participating in the BEPS Project have agreed to implement. It also includes specific treaty rules to address other forms of treaty abuse and ensures that tax treaties do not inadvertently prevent the application of domestic anti-abuse rules. The report finally includes changes to the OECD Model Tax Convention that clarify that tax treaties are not intended to create opportunities for non-taxation or reduced taxation through tax evasion or avoidance (including through treaty-shopping) and that identify the tax policy considerations that countries should consider before deciding to enter into a tax treaty with another country.
Le Projet OCDE/G20 de lutte contre l’érosion de la base d’imposition et le transfert de bénéfices (BEPS) fournit aux États des solutions pour éliminer les brèches qui subsistent dans les règles internationales actuelles et permettent à des sociétés d’organiser la « disparition » de leurs bénéfices ou de transférer artificiellement ces bénéfices vers certains pays qui appliquent une fiscalité faible ou nulle.
This event will review progress on tax and development made in 2015, including in relation to the UN Sustainable Development Goals, the Financing for Development Conference, the Addis Tax Initiative, the OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Project, Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes and Tax Inspectors Without Borders (TIWB).
Vast amounts are lost to illicit financial flows, including tax evasion, money laundering, bribery and corruption. These crimes threaten the strategic, political and economic interests of both developed and developing countries. In a world of limited resources and increasing complexity, it is essential for government authorities to work closely together in a “whole of government” approach to best address these challenges.