By Date


  • 31-juillet-2018

    Français

    Analyse coûts-avantages et environnement - Avancées théoriques et utilisation par les pouvoirs publics

    La présente publication examine les avancées récentes de l’analyse coûts-avantages (ACA) environnementale. Celle-ci correspond à l’application de l’ACA aux projets ou aux politiques qui visent explicitement à améliorer la qualité de l’environnement ou qui ont, d’une manière ou d’une autre, un effet indirect sur les milieux naturels. Cette publication s’appuie sur l’ouvrage précédent de l’OCDE rédigé par David Pearce et al. (2006), qui partait du constat que la conjonction d’un certain nombre d’avancées de l’ACA modifiait la manière dont bien des économistes recommanderaient de mettre en œuvre cet instrument, surtout dans le contexte de projets ou de politiques ayant des impacts environnementaux considérables.
    Cette publication n’a pas seulement pour principal objectif d’évaluer les progrès accomplis : elle cherche également à déterminer en quoi certaines évolutions illustrent des questions thématiques centrales ayant des conséquences pour l’application concrète de l’ACA environnementale dans le cadre de l’élaboration des politiques et de l’évaluation des projets d’investissement.
    Le thème sans doute le plus important a trait à la contribution de l’économie du climat face au défi que constitue l’évaluation des mesures publiques visant à atténuer le changement climatique (ou à s’y adapter). Les travaux dans ce domaine ont accru l’intérêt porté au mode d’évaluation des coûts et des avantages à très long terme et ils ont notamment montré à quel point les procédures classiques de détermination du taux d’actualisation social deviennent problématiques dans un contexte intergénérationnel et quelles pourraient être les nouvelles approches requises. La contribution de l’économie du climat a également suscité une réflexion plus poussée sur l’incertitude dans le cadre de l’ACA, en particulier en présence d’effets incertains qui peuvent avoir des impacts (négatifs) de grande ampleur.
  • 16-July-2018

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Czech Republic 2018

    The Czech Republic has made progress in decoupling economic growth from freshwater abstractions, energy consumption, GHG and other air pollutants emissions. However, its strong industrial base and reliance on coal place the country among the most energy- and carbon-intensive in the OECD and air pollution is a serious health concern. Progressing towards sustainable development will require strengthening political commitment to a low-carbon economy and implementing more cost-effective environmental policies.
    This is the third Environmental Performance Review of the Czech Republic. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on waste, materials management and circular economy and sustainable urban development.
  • 3-July-2018

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of Paraguay - Volume I. Initial Assessment

    Paraguay has achieved strong and resilient growth and made progress across a range of development outcomes since it emerged from a prolonged period of economic and political instability in the early 2000s. In 2014, the country adopted its first National Development Plan, setting course towards an ambitious vision of the country’s future. To maintain the pace of economic growth and achieve more inclusive development Paraguay will need to overcome a number of institutional, economic and social constraints that challenge its development model. This first volume of the Multi-dimensional Review of Paraguay analyses the country’s development performance and presents the main constraints to the country’s development. It examines five broad areas, corresponding to the key areas of the Sustainable Development Goals: prosperity, people’s well-being, planet, peace and institutions, and partnerships and financing.
  • 29-June-2018

    English

    Energy Subsidy Reform Schemes in the Republic of Moldova - Assessing Energy Affordability and Environmental Impacts

    This report looks at the fiscal, environmental and social impacts of energy subsidy reform in Moldova with a particular focus on energy affordability. Reduced value added tax (VAT) rate on natural gas consumption and a VAT exemption on electricity and heat consumption by domestic users represent the largest fossil-fuel consumer subsidies in Moldova. Reforming these will imply an increase of the VAT rate, which will lead to an increase of gas, electricity and heat tariffs for households, and will in turn affect household consumption levels, related expenditures and energy affordability. If reform measures are to work, they will need to be accompanied by a carefully-designed social policy to protect poor households.
  • 28-June-2018

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Hungary 2018

    Hungary has made significant progress in decoupling its output growth from main environmental pressures, largely due to implementing requirements of EU directives. However, greenhouse gas emissions have started to pick up with the recent rebound of economic activity. Local air quality has not improved significantly, and water quality remains at risk. Important institutional challenges impede more effective implementation of environmental laws and policies. Hungary can accelerate the transition towards a low-carbon and greener economy, particularly by investing in residential energy efficiency and sound waste and material management, and better mainstreaming of biodiversity protection into sectoral economic policies.This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Hungary. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on waste, material management and circular economy, and biodiversity.
  • 4-June-2018

    English

    Inventory of Energy Subsidies in the EU's Eastern Partnership Countries

    This publication aims to provide the first comprehensive and consistent record of energy subsidies in the EaP region, with a view to improving transparency and establishing a solid analytical basis that can help build the case for further reforms in these countries (this study covers Armenia, Azerbaijan Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine). Based on OECD standard methodology, the study provides quantitative estimates of government support provided to consumers and producers of coal, oil and related petroleum products, natural gas, and electricity and heat generated on the basis of these fossil fuels. This report also briefly looks at public support allocated to energy efficiency measures and renewable energy sources in the EaP countries, and discusses the taxation and energy pricing policies that underpin the analysis of energy subsidies.This publication was prepared within the framework of the 'Greening Economies in the Eastern Neighbourhood' (EaP GREEN) Project, supported by the European Union and co-ordinated with governments of the EaP countries and UN partners: UNECE, UN Environment and UNIDO.
  • 30-mai-2018

    Français

    Rapport du Secrétaire général aux ministres 2018

    Le rapport annuel du Secrétaire général de l’OCDE aux ministres revient sur les activités de l’OCDE en 2017 et quelques temps forts de 2018. Il couvre les activités du Secrétaire général et des membres de son Cabinet, les programmes horizontaux de l’OCDE et les activités de ses directions, ainsi que celles de ses agences, entités spéciales et comités consultatifs.Depuis plus de 50 ans, l’OCDE s'efforce de promouvoir des politiques meilleures pour une vie meilleure dans presque tous les domaines de l’action politique, de son élaboration à sa mise en œuvre. Elle s'appuie pour ce faire sur la coopération, le dialogue, la recherche du consensus et l’examen par les pairs.Les statistiques de l’OCDE font référence dans le monde entier. Elles offrent un large éventail de données comparatives dans des domaines tels que l’économie, le commerce, l’emploi, l’éducation, la santé, les enjeux sociaux, la migration ou l’environnement.
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  • 24-May-2018

    English

    Improving Markets for Recycled Plastics - Trends, Prospects and Policy Responses

    Plastics have become one of the most prolific materials on the planet: in 2015 we produced about 380 million tonnes of plastics globally, up from 2 million tonnes in the 1950s. Yet today only 15% of this plastic waste is collected and recycled into secondary plastics globally each year. This report looks at why this is the case and what we can do about it, as the pervasiveness of plastics is becoming an urgent public health and planetary problem. Not only is the diffusion of waste plastics into the wider environment creating hugely negative impacts, but plastics production emits approximately 400 million tonnes of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions annually as a result of the energy used in their production, transport, and final waste treatment. Improved plastics collection and recycling represents a promising solution to these concerns.
  • 23-May-2018

    English

    International Transport Forum 2018: Transport Safety and Security

    The 2018 Summit addressed issues ranging from terrorism and cyber-security to road safety and extreme weather disruption, including the risks and benefits of automated driving. Safety and security are core concerns for transport. Enhancing transport safety and security is an essential element in the implementation of two major international agreements, the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Climate Agreement.

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  • 7-May-2018

    English

    Blogs and articles related to environment

    Read what OECD bloggers have to say about topics as varied as air pollution, biodiversity, climate, environmental policies, green finance, green growth, investment, waste and water. Join the discussion on our latest blog: Energy sector SOEs: You have the power!

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