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Reports


  • 29-November-2019

    English

    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India 2020 - Rethinking Education for the Digital Era

    The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is a bi-annual publication on regional economic growth, development and regional integration in Emerging Asia. It focuses on the economic conditions of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also addresses relevant economic issues in China and India to fully reflect economic developments in the region. The Outlook comprises three main parts, each highlighting a particular dimension of recent economic developments in the region. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. The second part consists of a special thematic chapter addressing a major issue facing the region. The 2020 edition of the Outlook looks at human capital development, with a special focus on education for the digital era. The digital era is bringing important new developments for businesses and the workforce. As success in the digital era will require a new set of skills, education systems will need to adapt. Emerging Asian countries need to address certain challenges including improving ICT infrastructure, enhancing capacity of teachers, adapting curricula, as well as enhancing the role of TVET and lifelong learning. The third part of the report includes structural country notes offering specific recommendations for each country.
  • 28-November-2019

    English

    Making Dispute Resolution More Effective – MAP Peer Review Report, China (Stage 1) - Inclusive Framework on BEPS: Action 14

    Under Action 14, countries have committed to implement a minimum standard to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the mutual agreement procedure (MAP). The MAP is included in Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention and commits countries to endeavour to resolve disputes related to the interpretation and application of tax treaties. The Action 14 Minimum Standard has been translated into specific terms of reference and a methodology for the peer review and monitoring process. The minimum standard is complemented by a set of best practices.The peer review process is conducted in two stages. Stage 1 assesses countries against the terms of reference of the minimum standard according to an agreed schedule of review. Stage 2 focuses on monitoring the follow-up of any recommendations resulting from jurisdictions' stage 1 peer review report. This report reflects the outcome of the stage 1 peer review of the implementation of the Action 14 Minimum Standard by the People's Republic of China.
  • 15-October-2019

    English

    Taxing Energy Use: Key Findings for China

    This country note explains how the People's Republic of China taxes energy use. The note shows the distribution of effective energy tax rates across all domestic energy use. It also details the country-specific assumptions made when calculating effective energy tax rates and matching tax rates to the corresponding energy base.

  • 24-July-2019

    English

    Energy Security in ASEAN +6

    The ASEAN+6 group comprises the ten countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and six other countries in the Asia-Pacific region: Australia, the People’s Republic of China ('China'), India, Japan, Korea and New Zealand. This group includes the world’s fastest-growing and most dynamic energy consumption centres. They are led by China, India and ASEAN, the emerging Asian economies, whose share of global energy demand is expected to reach 40% by 2040, up from only 20% in 2000.Energy demand in the ASEAN+6 countries is set to take diverse paths. In India, for example, low per capita energy use and a high population growth rate indicate the potential for substantial energy demand growth. In Japan, by contrast, a declining population and increasing energy efficiencies are contributing to a continuous fall in energy consumption. Countries of the region also differ in their natural resource wealth and their levels of socio-economic and technological development.These countries share common challenges, however, in ensuring the security of their energy supplies. Given their shared geographical location, they could help one another meet these energy security challenges by deepening regional co-operation.This report starts by giving an overview of the energy security issues of the region. Subsequent chapters cover the key energy sectors of oil, natural gas and electricity. They identify the main energy security issues, including a high level of vulnerability to natural disasters and heavy dependence on imports of fossil fuels, which must pass through major global chokepoints. The report provides policy advice, primarily for the region’s developing countries, based on the emergency response systems and accumulated experience in energy security of the International Energy Agency and its member countries.
  • 10-July-2019

    English

    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India 2019 – Update - Responding to Environmental Hazards in Cities

    The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is a bi-annual publication on regional economic growth, development and regional integration in Emerging Asia. It focuses on the economic conditions of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also addresses relevant economic issues in China and India to fully reflect economic developments in the region.The update of the Outlook comprises three main parts, each highlighting a particular dimension of recent economic developments in the region. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. The second and third parts consist of special thematic chapters addressing a major issue facing the region. This update focuses on smart cities, discussing in particular smart city strategies and urban environmental risks.
  • 20-June-2019

    English

    The Future of Cooling in China - Delivering on action plans for suistainable air conditioning

    The People’s Republic of China had the fastest growth in space cooling energy consumption worldwide in the last two decades, driven by increasing income and growing demand for thermal comfort. This report explores the principal trends and challenges related to this rapid growth, looking into existing market developments, policies, technology choices and occupant behaviour in buildings in China. It then looks at how cooling demand in buildings might evolve over the next decade to 2030 and considers what China can do to ensure greater cooling comfort without parallel growth in energy consumption and related emissions. The report recommends raising energy performance standards for cooling equipment, tapping into building design opportunities, and ensuring that 'part time' and 'part space' behaviour remains the principal cooling mode in buildings. These strategies, among others, will reduce the impact of rising cooling demand on China’s electricity system, unlocking benefits in terms of reduced power capacity investments, lower energy and maintenance costs, improved air quality, and greater access to cooling comfort.
  • 20-June-2019

    English

    Gas Market Liberalisation Reform - Key insights from international experiences and the implications for China

    This report systematically examines the key points for natural gas liberalisation and regulatory reform in Europe and the United States over the past decades. It addresses market design, third-party access, capacity allocation, trading centre formation, pipeline tariff setting, and regulatory measures. In addition, the report analyses the transition process itself and identifies the related measures that can help national markets become more openly competitive. Based on these international experiences, the report then looks at the current situation of natural gas liberalisation in the People’s Republic of China, focusing on the importance of designing a suitable framework for the natural gas market by using best-policy tools.The central goal of this report is to allow policy makers in China to benefit from international experiences to effectively promote the current liberalisation, the success of which will also greatly influence the global industrial development of gas.This report is the result of a project involving relevant Chinese, European, and United States institutions under the overall oversight of the International Energy Agency.
  • 26-March-2019

    English

    China Power System Transformation - Assessing the benefit of optimised operations and advanced flexibility options

    China Power System Transformation has a two-fold objective. First, it provides a summary of the state of play of power system transformation (PST) in the People’s Republic of China ('China') as well as a comprehensive discussion of PST internationally. This includes a comprehensive review of all possible sources of power system flexibility (power plants, grid infrastructure, storage, and demand-side response) and a detailed discussion of market, policy, and regulatory frameworks to effectively mobilise power system flexibility. Second, it presents findings from a detailed power sector modelling exercise for China in 2035, building on the 2018 World Energy Outlook New Policies and Sustainable Development Scenarios. The modelling identifies the establishment of spot markets and trade between provinces as two of the main elements to improve system operation efficiency in China. In order to integrate very high shares of variable renewables consistent with the WEO SDS, activating the demand side – especially electric vehicles – and targeted use of electricity storage are found to be crucial for an accelerated transformation of the Chinese power system.
  • 4-October-2018

    English

    Innovation, Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability in China

    The expansion of agricultural production in China has been remarkable, but at the expense of the sustainable use of its natural resources. To counter this, as well as to face problems due to rising labour costs and a rapidly ageing rural population, agricultural production must concentrate on a smaller number of more productive farms. It is in this light that this report reviews recent policy developments to assess whether they have been conducive to productivity growth and environmental sustainability. It finds that the conditions for structural change and innovation at the farm level in China could be further improved by securing the long-term stability of land rights as well as reducing transaction costs. Greater policy coherence with agri-environmental policy objectives could also be achieved through stricter enforcement of environmental regulations. Finally, the agricultural innovation system could play a greater role by placing the focus on public agricultural R&D in areas such as the environment and resource conservation, and in other areas which do not attract much private sector investment. 
  • 7-September-2018

    English

    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India 2018 - Update - Promoting Opportunities in E-commerce

    The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is a bi-annual publication on regional economic growth, development and regional integration in Emerging Asia. It focuses on the economic conditions of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also addresses relevant economic issues in China and India to fully reflect economic developments in the region.The update of the Outlook comprises two main parts, each highlighting a particular dimension of recent economic developments in the region. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. And the second part consists of a special thematic chapter addressing a major issue facing the region. This update focuses on promoting opportunities in e-commerce.
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