Les principales caractéristiques des accords de financement infranationaux actuels en Chine remontent à la réforme fiscale de 1994. La Chine possède une structure administrative à plusieurs niveaux qui partage les recettes fiscales nationales par le biais d'un système de répartition des recettes fiscales et de transferts, et qui attribue les missions et responsabilités en matière de dépense.
The charts show for each of the following countries and territories, and for the years 2009-2011: net ODA receipts, top ten donors of gross ODA, population and GNI per capita and bilateral ODA by sector.
Sound and transparent corporate governance policies will play a crucial role in reform initiatives and capital market development in China, as well as attracting the international investors required to sustain China’s long term economic growth. In order to support the these reforms, the OECD shares its experiences in the area of corporate governance with China through regular policy dialogue exchanges.
Cet article explore l’impact des réformes structurelles dans les domaines du commerce international, du marché des produits et des marchés financiers sur la productivité chinoise au cours des dix dernières, la Chine pouvant être considéré comme un pays en forte croissance dans lequel, malgré la mise en ouvre de réformes importantes, la politique réglementaire reste bien loin des standards de l’OCDE.
Production processes have become global and markets more integrated as trade costs have fallen on the back of technological progress and trade and investment policy reforms. We can no longer base policy decisions on conventional trade statistics that report the gross value of products and services each time they cross borders. Instead, we need to measure how much and where value is added, said OECD Secretary-General in Beijing.
During his visit China, Angel Gurría attended the Global Value Chains in the 21st Century conference, organised jointly by the OECD, UNCTAD, and the WTO in partnership with China's Ministry of Commerce. The Secretary-General also met with several high level representatives of the Chinese government and business.
The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world’s total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world’s final energy use – more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport – solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.
Skills and educational development for inclusive and sustainable growth are becoming significant drivers in OECD countries.
In recent years, rapid industrialisation, intensified agricultural production and urbanisation in the People's Republic of China has brought greater prosperity and higher living standards to many, but it has also created high demand for energy and raw materials, increased pressure on ecosystems and affected health outcomes. China is committed to achieving a green economy.
The discussion in the meeting provided some insights into China’s growth model and need to improve competitiveness, particularly in view of the global economic slowdown.