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In 2015, three economies in China participated in the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment, or PISA, for the first time: Beijing, a municipality, Jiangsu, a province on the eastern coast of the country, and Guangdong, a southern coastal province. Shanghai, which, like Beijing, is also a Chinese megacity of over 20 million people, has participated in PISA since 2009.
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Report prepared for the G20 Science, Technology and Innovation Ministers Meeting in Beijing, China, 4 November 2016
Since the beginning of China’s economic transformation in the early 1970s, investment has been a key driver of China’s growth and has contributed to substantial improvements in living standards. Over three decades of average annual GDP growth of 10%, disposable incomes have soared, lifting hundreds of millions of people out of extreme poverty. The share of the population living in extreme poverty has declined from above 90% in the early 1980s to less than 10% today. However, this growth model is no longer sustainable. Returns on investment have declined, although they are still higher than those of the Asian Tigers. Excess capacity is plaguing several sectors, and negative externalities have been onerous, notably in terms of environmental degradation and income inequality. A key objective of the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) is therefore to move the economy towards a path of more balanced, sustainable and inclusive growth.
Le financement concessionnel dispensé par la Chine au titre du développement s’est élevé au total à 3.4 milliards USD en 2014, contre 3 milliards USD en 2013 (estimations de l’OCDE d’après Gouvernement de la Chine, 2015, et sites web des organisations multilatérales). En 2014, la Chine a fait transiter 397 millions USD par le canal multilatéral.
L’OCDE a salué la publication par la Chine et les États-Unis d’examens par les pairs portant sur leurs subventions aux combustibles fossiles.
The Secretary-General presented OECD work and recommendations to G20 Heads of State and Government at several sessions and also participated in the B20 summit and held bilateral meetings with leaders attending the events.
The OECD/Korea Policy Centre fosters the exchange of technical information and policy experiences relating to the Asia Pacific region in areas such as health statistics, pension reforms and social policy and expenditure.
La Chine est parmi les près de 200 pays qui ont adopté le 12 décembre 2015 l’Accord de Paris sur les changements climatiques lors de la conférence historique des Nations Unies. La manière dont la Chine, économie émergente et l’un des premiers émetteurs mondiaux de gaz à effet de serre, mettra en œuvre cet accord sera importante. Nous avons demandé son avis à Xuedu Lu, de la Banque asiatique de développement.
Lack of energy access and frequent electricity shortages are major impediments to economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Over 635 million people live without electricity in the region. Because the overall electrification rate remains at less than one-third of the population, the region needs increased investment in the power sector.
As part of their increasing activity in overseas markets, companies from the People’s Republic of China have significantly enhanced their engagement in Africa in the last 15 years, covering a wide range of sectors, including the electricity industry. Chinese-built projects and financial support from China are contributing to power sector development, extending energy access and facilitating economic growth.
This report analyses China’s engagement in the sub-Saharan Africa power sector, including the key drivers underlying Chinese investments. An overview of Chinese projects (generation, transmission and distribution) during the 2010-20 period is provided in this first-ever consolidated effort to map them.
The report identifies the key Chinese stakeholders and assesses their impact on policies affecting energy access, economic development and financing modalities. Two case studies examine Chinese investment at the country level in Ghana and Ethiopia.
For the OECD, China is an indispensable partner in this exercise and I would like to thank Minister Lou and the Ministry of Finance for organising this event. It is another milestone in our ever-expanding co-operation following the agreement of our memorandum of understanding in March 2015