Efficacité de l'aide

Division of Labour for Complementarity: Background

 

 

A lack of harmonisation between different donors' efforts at the country level has been a major hindrance towards achieving more effective aid for many years. For this reason, efforts to improve harmonisation between donors were the focus of the Rome Declaration in 2003. In 2005 harmonisation became one of the five central pillars of the Paris Declaration for Aid Effectiveness.

Why is harmonisation important?

When individual donors (public and private) decide separately which country programmes to assist based on their own particular criteria, the pattern of aid distribution across countries becomes insufficiently co-ordinated. The absence of timely information on other donors’ forward intentions impedes everyone’s ability to adjust their own plans accordingly.

This pattern generates inefficiencies and inequities. The resulting geographical gaps and overlaps, commonly called “aid darlings” and aid orphans”, can entail considerable global costs, to the extent that the aid community as a whole fails to invest systematically where aid is expected to have the most impact.

In addition, evidence from studying aid effectiveness within the health sector has shown that a proliferation of donors working in the same sector significantly impairs aid effectiveness.

OECD DAC work on aid architecture and fragmentation

OECD DAC Studies on Harmonisation

 

How can better division of labour help with harmonisation?

Country-led division of labour (DoL) has emerged as one important strategy to achieve the Paris Declaration principle of harmonisation.  Good division of labour ensures the complementarity of aid contributions in order to overcome increasing proliferation and fragmentation.

In 2009 the International Good Practice Principles for Country-Led Division of Labour and Complementarity outlined in-country division of labour. In addition the EU Code of Conduct on Complementarity and Division of Labour ( May 2007) also provides guidance on improving practice at the country level. The implementation of the EU Code of Conduct is supported by a Fast Track Initiative (FTI) in approximately 30 partner countries,

 

Ongoing work on division of labour

At Busan in 2011, a building block was set up to advance work in the area of division of labour. The building block on Managing Diversity works on country-specific strategies to make better use of the increasing diversity of providers of development co-operation and to deal successfully with undesired fragmentation of external support.

 

Country Case studies

At the time of the agreement on the EU Code of Conduct (2007) and Third High Level Forum (2008), only Uganda and Zambia were reported to have fairly advanced DoL processes, initiated in the broader context of Joint Assistance Strategies (JAS). Since then, in part due to facilitation in the FTI context, many more countries have become involved.

Uganda 

Zambia 

Malawi

  • DoL Support in Malawi (March 2010)
    Upon request by the Ministry of Finance, a detailed donor mapping of current sector presence was conducted with a view towards more systematic division of labour.

Burkina Faso

  • DoL Support in Burkina Faso (February 2010). Upon request by the Government of Burkina Faso, a detailed donors mapping of current sector presence was conducted with a view towards a more systematic division of labour. Report and annex (en français)  

Rwanda

Studies on the exit of Sweden, Denmark, Norway and/or the Netherlands from several developing countries (relevant for cross-country division of labour)

 

Methods and tools for better division of labour

 

Measuring progress towards the Paris Declaration commitments on fragmentation and division of labour

As part of its input to the “Progress since Paris” Report, the Task Team on DoL has submiited a number of documents:
Main findings: Evidence on Trends in Fragmentation and Proliferation and Implementation and Results of Division of Labour Processes - Key Messages for HLF 4 and Beyond

Along with several annexes with detailed analyses on which the main findings are based:

In addition, the package contains three annexes with DoL country experiences or initiatives:

 

Analysis of in-country aid fragmentation and donor proliferation

The OECD-DAC Task Team on Division of Labour and Complementarity has undertaken work to support more detailed analysis of aid fragmentation in partner countries. These tables were shared with the national co-ordinators of the Monitoring exercise to support them in task to assess the Division of Labour situation within their country.

Paris Declaration monitoring

Methodology to Measure Progress towards in-Country DoL
The third Paris Declaration Monitoring Survey in 2011 gave crucial information on the overall progress of the aid effectiveness agenda. The Task

Fragmentation tables

 

Paris Declaration evaluation

PD Evaluation: Conceptual and Methodological Input on DoL
The second phase of the Paris Declaration Evaluation will focus on the development results, outcomes and impacts of the Aid Effectiveness agenda. Since DoL is an important aspect of the PD principle of harmonisation but was not well covered in the Evaluation Approach Paper, TT DoL submitted an Input Paper for this process which can be downloaded from the Paris Declaration Evaluation website.

A regularly updated factsheet on DoL gives an overview of the process.

21 country evaluations and seven new donor studies will be finalised by the end of 2010. Information on the progress, obstacles and results of DoL processes will be compiled and analysed.

 

EU work

FTI monitoring

So far, the FTI has been monitored twice by sending out a questionnaire to all facilitators at country level. The results show progress especially with regard to preparatory steps like donor mapping. They also indicate areas that need more attention, especially ensuring country ownership and support by donor headquarters. The third monitoring questionnaire has been circulated and a report will be available from February 2011.  
Read and download the monitoring reports from  FTI 1st Monitoring Report and FTI 2nd Monitoring Report  

 

Quantitative and qualitative research

OECD research on fragmentation
During the last few years, both the OECD DAC Secretariat and the OECD Development Centre have refined their analyses of concentration or fragmentations of aid flows (published e.g. in the annual Development Co-operation Reports). Flows are analysed using a new aid measure, country programmable aid (CPA). The reports propose approaches to reducing aid fragmentation through more effective DoL among other countries. Consult reports from the Doc 1 and Doc 2

 

Studies commissioned by the EC
The European Commission is also increasingly commissioning studies related to aid effectiveness and, in this context, DoL. Read and download EC 2009. Aid Effectiveness Agenda: Benefits of a European Approach.

 

DIE/GDI Studies
The German Development Institute (GDI, in German DIE) has been involved with DoL since the seminal study by Holger Mürle (2007) which prepared the way for the EU Code of Conduct.
Mürle 2007. Towards a Division of Labour in European Development Cooperation

Grimm & Schulz 2009. International Division of Labour - Towards a Criteria-Led Process  

 

Studies on the exit of Sweden, Denmark, Norway and/or the Netherlands from several developing countries (relevant for cross-country division of labour)
Synthesis reports of a 2008 joint donor evaluation by Sweden, Denmark, Noway and the Netherlands on the management of their exits from India, South Africa, Eritrea, Botswana and Malawi. Download the synthesis and country studies

 

Fride studies
The Spanish Think Tank FRIDE has conducted conceptual, field and comparative studies both on in-country and cross-country DoL. Access the Fride site.
Consult a list of publications by Nils Sjard Schulz or download his report International Division of Labour: A Test Case for the Partnership Paradigm

As part of its input to the “Progress since Paris” Report, the Task Team on DoL has submiited a number of documents:
Main findings: Evidence on Trends in Fragmentation and Proliferation and Implementation and Results of Division of Labour Processes - Key Messages for HLF 4 and Beyond

Along with several annexes with detailed analyses on which the main findings are based:

In addition, the package contains three annexes with DoL country experiences or initiatives:

 

 

Analysis of in-country aid fragmentation and donor proliferation

The OECD-DAC Task Team on Division of Labour and Complementarity has undertaken work to support more detailed analysis of aid fragmentation in partner countries. These table have been shared with the national co-ordinators of the Monitoring exercise to support them in task to assess the Division of Labour situation within their country.

 

Working Party on Aid Effectiveness documents

 

EU documents

  • EU Code of Conduct on Complementarity and Division of Labour (May 2007): The Code of Conduct (CoC) presents eleven guiding principles for EU donors with regard to DoL processes. For example, EU donors committed themselves to focus their involvement in each partner country on no more thant three sectors and to limit the number of active EU donors to a maximum of three to five per sector. The CoC proposes an inclusive approach that is open to all donors under the leadership of the partner countries and also contains references to cross-country DoL.
  • EU Operational Framework on Aid Effectiveness (November 2009 updated June 2010): The Operational Framework's chapter on DoL stresses the need to accelerate the FTI and to begin a process of information-sharing and coordination on cross-country DoL.

 

 

 

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