Politiques agricoles

Fertiliser and biofuels support policies database

 

This OECD database is a compilation of policies relating to support within the fertiliser and biofuels sectors of several countries. The data cover the period from 1995 to 2012 for biofuels and from 2000 to 2012 for fertilisers, depending on data availability.

The data are based on public sources, complemented by government and other information where available – the sources are indicated next to the data entries. This database is part of an OECD project that measures the incidence of policies along the supply chain for fertilisers and biofuels.

 

  About the data: Fertilisers Biofuels  

 

Country data

    Argentina Fertilisers data    
    Australia Fertilisers data Biofuels data  
    Austria   Biofuels data  
    Belgium   Biofuels data  
    Brazil Fertilisers data Biofuels data  
   Bulgaria_small Bulgaria   Biofuels data  
    Canada Fertilisers data Biofuels data  
    Chile Fertilisers data    
    China Fertilisers data    
   Cyprus_small Cyprus Fertilisers data Biofuels data  
   Czech Republic_small Czech Republic Fertilisers data Biofuels data  
  Denmark_small Denmark   Biofuels data  
    Estonia   Biofuels data  
   European Union_small European Union Fertilisers data Biofuels data  
    Finland   Biofuels data  
    France   Biofuels data  
   Germany_small Germany   Biofuels data   
    Greece   Biofuels data  
    Hungary   Biofuels data  
    Iceland Fertilisers data    
    India Fertilisers data Biofuels data  
    Indonesia Fertilisers data Biofuels data  
    Ireland   Biofuels data  
    Israel Fertilisers data    
    Italy   Biofuels data  
   Japan_small Japan Fertilisers data    
   Latvia_small Latvia   Biofuels data  
   Lithuania_small Lithuania   Biofuels data  
   ‌ Luxemburg   Biofuels data  
   Malta_small Malta   Biofuels data  
   Mexico_small Mexico Fertilisers data    
    Netherlands   Biofuels data  
   New Zealand_small New Zealand Fertilisers data    
    Norway Fertilisers data    
   ‌ Poland Fertilisers data Biofuels data  
    Portugal Fertilisers data    
   Romania_small Romania   Biofuels data  
    Russia Fertilisers data    
   Slovak Republic_small Slovak Republic   Biofuels data  
    Slovenia   Biofuels data  
   South Africa_small South Africa Fertilisers data    
    Spain Fertilisers data Biofuels data  
    Sweden   Biofuels data  
    Switzerland Fertilisers data Biofuels data  
    Turkey Fertilisers data    
   Ukraine_small Ukraine Fertilisers data    
   United Kingdom_small United Kingdom   Biofuels data  
   United States_small United States Fertilisers data Biofuels data  

 

Fertiliser policy files

Structure of fertiliser policy files

Fertiliser policy files are set up following a standard structure, separating border measures from domestic policies.

Section I on border measures includes import tariffs and other import measures (e.g. import quotas, TRQs), while export measures include export duties, other export measures (e.g. export bans, export quotas) and VAT refunds on exports.

Section II with data on domestic policies is structured according to different points in the supply chain for fertilisers. Section II.1 contains policies with a first incidence at the fertiliser manufacturers, while Sections II.2 and II.3 include policies where the first incidence is the intermediary supplier (e.g. transport, storage, wholesaling and retailing) and final user of fertilisers, respectively.

Within Section II.1, information on domestic price regulation is followed by data on policies related to the output of fertiliser producers, related to the use of variable inputs (e.g. raw materials or energy) or related to capital use in fertiliser production, policies related to value added, revenues or income, and other measures related to fertiliser production.

Section II.2 contains measures related to credit, transport, storage, revenues or income, or any other policies with incidence at the intermediate suppliers.

Section II.3 includes fertiliser price subsidies, tax concessions, credit concessions, transportation subsidies and other support measures with incidence at the fertiliser user, i.e. the agricultural producer.

Acknowledgements

Data on fertiliser policies have been compiled based on input from OECD member countries’ administrations, as well as from the governments of Argentina and Brazil. In addition, the Secretariat acknowledges input from consultants for compiling data on other Emerging Economies:

  • India: Prof. Simrit Kaur, Faculty of Management Studies, University of Delhi, India
  • Indonesia: Mr. Mohamed Iqbal Rafani, Centre for Agricultural Socio-Economic and Policy Studies (ICASEPS), Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Russia: Dr. Nataliya Karlova, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, and Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy, Moscow, Russia

  • Ukraine: Dr. Iryna Kobuta, National Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kyiv, Ukraine

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Biofuel policy files

Structure of the biofuel policy files

Biofuel policy files are set up following a standard structure, including background information, border measures and domestic policies.

Section I. includes background data on the biofuel sector, covering biofuel production and production capacity data, biofuel consumption data (including biofuel shares in the transport fuel mix) as well as price information for both biofuels and fossil transport fuels.

Section II. covers border measures related to both biofuel and feedstock trade. It includes import tariffs (including any countervailing or antidumping duty rates) and other import measures, as well as export duties, quantitative export measures and VAT refunds on exports.

Section III. on domestic biofuel support policies is structured along the biofuel supply chains, starting with any specific policies supporting the production of biofuel feedstock commodities (III.1., other than agricultural policies in general. Data on agricultural support can be found in the Producer Support Estimate Database www.oecd.org/agriculture/pse) and price regulation for biofuels or fossil fuels (III.2).

Section III.3 concerns policies with incidence at the biofuel manufacturer and in particular includes support based on the use of production factors and of intermediate inputs, based on biofuel output, on value added or on firm revenues.

Section III.4 concerns policies with incidence at the intermediate suppliers of biofuels (e.g. transportation, storage, blending and distribution), and in particular includes credit concessions, subsidies for transportation or for storage, volumetric tax credits and concessions in corporate taxes.

Section III.5. covers all policies mandating specific biofuel shares within the fuel mix or absolute levels of biofuel consumption, or targeting such values in a non-mandatory manner.

Section III.6. contains data on policies with incidence at the user of biofuels – either based on adapted vehicles or based on the purchase of biofuels – as well as of byproducts from the biofuel production processes (e.g. DDGS, glycerine).

Finally, sections III.7. and III.8 contain information on Research and Development, and on sustainability criteria related to biofuels, respectively.

Acknowledgements

Data on biofuels policies have been compiled based on the data originally collected by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in the context of the Global Subsidies Initiative (GSI)’s series of reports on “Biofuels – At What Cost”: www.iisd.org/gsi/biofuel-subsidies/biofuels-what-cost. The data were cross-checked, amended and completed by OECD member countries’ administrations. In addition, the Secretariat acknowledges input from consultants for compiling data on the following Emerging Economies:

  • Brazil: FGV Projetos, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • India: Prof. Simrit Kaur, Faculty of Management Studies, University of Delhi, India
  • Indonesia: Mr. Mohamed Iqbal Rafani, Centre for Agricultural Socio-Economic and Policy Studies (ICASEPS), Jakarta, Indonesia

 

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