Global demand for food is estimated to double by 2050. Natural resources for agriculture and fisheries (such as land and water) will come under increasing pressure from urbanisation and industrialisation.
Farming and fishing have significant impacts on the environment. Climate change will also have an effect on agriculture and food production.
The challenge for policy makers is to meet increasing demands for food and resources while minimising environmental and social pressure.
Green growth means promoting economic growth while reducing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, minimising waste and inefficient use of natural resources, and maintaining biodiversity. A greener and more effective food chain can contribute substantially to sustainable growth and food security, and pave the way for less pressure on marine and land resources.
Did you know?
Agriculture uses on average over 40% of water and land resources in OECD countries.
More than 1 billion people depend on fish as their main source of protein.
47% of the world's population, mainly in developing countries, will be living under severe water stress by 2050, according to OECD projections.
An increase of 3° to 5° in global mean temperatures would result in a fall in maize and wheat yields, high production losses of pigs and confined cattle, and increased heat stress and mortality in livestock.
The Blue Economy
The oceans have long been the centre of economic activity. People have been living near the sea, feeding themselves by fishing and making their livelihoods on the coast for thousands of years.
Fisheries will be crucial in feeding a global population set to rise by 2 billion over the next 40 years. The challenge today is harnessing the potential of this Blue Economy.
Nobel economics laureate Elinor Ostrom published groundbreaking work on how and why people organise themselves to manage common natural resources. Visiting OECD in 2011, she explained the benefits of this system.
How can we build a sustainable fishing industry that maintains healthy fish stocks and valued employment? Fisheries policy analyst Saba Khwaja talks about OECD work on this subject, while fish seller Antoine Mallaird tells us about the changes he's seen in his business.
Farming accounts for 70 percent of water used in the world today, depleting supplies and polluting lakes and rivers. Kevin Parris, agriculture expert at the OECD, says climate change and water scarcity will mean farmers have be more efficient - use less water to produce the same amount of food at the same price.
Agriculture and climate change Agriculture is having to adapt to the impacts of climate change, while at the same time provide food for a growing population and meet environmental objectives.
Climate change and fisheries Climate change effects on fish stocks will have social and economic effects on fisheries and coastal communities.
Water use in agriculture Agriculture is the major user of water in many countries. However, pressure from urbanisation, industrialisation and climate change means that efficient water management in agriculture is critical.
A major shift in farm policy and practice is needed if a growing world population is to be fed without over-exploiting scarce natural resources or further damaging the environment, according to this report.
The report identifies three priority areas where coherent action is required:
Increase productivity in a sustainable way.
Ensure that well functioning markets provide the right signals.
Establish and enforce well-defined property rights.
Cette publication est également disponible en français.
This report is based on the following consultants' reports:
Green Growth Strategy Workshop, OECD, Paris, 10-11 February 2011 Policymakers and experts from OECD and partner countries reviewed the latest work on the Green Growth Strategy's Synthesis Report, including breakout sessions on themes including food and agriculture.