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This paper examines the role of guarantees in DC pension plans, in particular minimum investment return guarantees during the accumulation phase. The main goal is to assess the cost and benefits of different return guarantees. The report uses a stochastic financial market model where guarantee claims are calculated as a financial derivative in a financial market framework (like e.g. the valuation of a put option). In this context, the
The paper argues that judgements play an important role in determining appropriate trade-offs when making issuance choices. The result of the determination of cost and risk factors and judgements about trade-offs is usually a relatively balanced issuance split across the maturity spectrum, along both the nominal and real yield curves.
Transitioning to a low-carbon and climate resilient economy will require significant investment by private sources of capital. Pension funds and other institutional investors can play an important role to play in financing green growth initiatives. This paper examines some of the initiatives that are currently under way around the world to assist and encourage pension funds to help finance green growth.
In recent years, India has enjoyed one of the highest growth rates worldwide, weathering the global financial crisis better than many other countries.
This paper examines how the the distributive impact of macroeconomic shocks is shaped by selected institutions. It uses a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) framework with heterogeneous agents and an endogenous collateral constraint.
The Indian financial system has changed considerably since the 1990s. Interest rates have been deregulated and new entrants allowed in the banking and the securities business.
This paper addresses the often neglected question of how macroeconomic risk is shared across and within economies, and identifies reforms that could contribute towards achieving more desirable risk-sharing outcomes.
This paper looks at the empirical determinates of foreign currency reserve holdings across a panel of around 130 countries between 1980 and 2008.
This paper proposes a framework to help policymakers think about how best develop a national strategy to hedge against the massive economic burden of extreme events that could hit their country tomorrow, focusing specifically on the role that risk transfer mechanisms alternative to traditional insurance can play.
This paper gathers evidence on public sector pension plans regarding the type of pension promise and quantifies the future tax burden related to these pension promises. The reported liabilities are recalculated using both a fair value approach (local market discount rates) and a common, fixed discount rate across all countries which reflects projected growth in national income.