The ongoing financial crisis has put euro adoption at the top of Estonia's policy agenda. However, shocks affecting Estonia are only weakly synchronized with those of the euro area, and the structure of its economy also notably differs from the euro zone.
This working paper begins with a discussion of the factors that made the banks, non-financial firms and households vulnerable to deterioration in global financial markets. It then describes the failure of the banks, its direct impact on government debt, the IMF SBA and the economic outlook.
In contrast to the once prevailing norm of secrecy and opaqueness, transparency has now become one of the main features characterising the conduct of monetary policy.
There is a case, but there are also counter-arguments. With sufficient forward-looking behaviour among firms and households, price-level targeting can act as a powerful built-in stabiliser through automatic shifts in inflation expectations.
This paper reviews the supervisory and regulatory framework and the many reforms that have already been adopted to remedy these weaknesses. It also provides recommendations for further reforms.
English, , 611kb
This paper assesses the impact of different quantitative approaches to regulate investment risk on the retirement income stemming from defined contribution (DC) pension plans. It looks at how such regulations affect the spectrum of investment policies available and, through this channel, how they affect the retirement income that an individual may expect from a DC pension plan.
This paper tests for the existence of a bank lending channel in the transmission of monetary policy in Brazil using monthly aggregate data for the period 1995:12 through 2008:6.
English, Excel, 679kb
Financial Education and the Crisis: Policy Paper and Guidance, OECD 2009
The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of financial crises on potential output.
English, , 535kb
This paper provides a comparative analysis of defined contribution (DC) pension systems in Australia, Ireland, the United Kingdom and the United States.