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This paper shows that world demand (to which trade has become more responsive in recent decades) can explain most of the collapse in world trade, but that tight credit conditions have likely amplified the short-term trade response.
This working paper discusses what policy makers should do in order to restore balance in the Icelandic economy and lay out the foundations for a sustainable recovery.
English, , 498kb
Data and supplementary tables from Economics Department working paper on Estonia and euro adoption: Small country challenges of joining EMU.
The ongoing financial crisis has put euro adoption at the top of Estonia's policy agenda. However, shocks affecting Estonia are only weakly synchronized with those of the euro area, and the structure of its economy also notably differs from the euro zone.
This working paper begins with a discussion of the factors that made the banks, non-financial firms and households vulnerable to deterioration in global financial markets. It then describes the failure of the banks, its direct impact on government debt, the IMF SBA and the economic outlook.
In contrast to the once prevailing norm of secrecy and opaqueness, transparency has now become one of the main features characterising the conduct of monetary policy.
There is a case, but there are also counter-arguments. With sufficient forward-looking behaviour among firms and households, price-level targeting can act as a powerful built-in stabiliser through automatic shifts in inflation expectations.
This paper reviews the supervisory and regulatory framework and the many reforms that have already been adopted to remedy these weaknesses. It also provides recommendations for further reforms.
English, , 611kb
This paper assesses the impact of different quantitative approaches to regulate investment risk on the retirement income stemming from defined contribution (DC) pension plans. It looks at how such regulations affect the spectrum of investment policies available and, through this channel, how they affect the retirement income that an individual may expect from a DC pension plan.
This paper tests for the existence of a bank lending channel in the transmission of monetary policy in Brazil using monthly aggregate data for the period 1995:12 through 2008:6.