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Financial markets have recovered substantially but vulnerabilities remain significant. Ample liquidity may lead to new bubbles, particularly in some emerging markets, and uncertainties about governments’ exit strategies and regulatory changes weigh on a fledgling upswing. Co-ordination and communication of exit policies will be important, and exit from policy stimulus should not be precipitated at the current juncture. While financial
Chinese financial institutions are now generally stronger and better regulated than a few years ago and the financial system is gradually opening up. However, further reforms are required.
China’s monetary policy framework has gradually become more market-based. Going forward, it will need to place less emphasis on quantity-based liquidity controls and more on interest rate changes.
Monetary policy and inflation prospects are broadly sound in Israel, but significant challenges remain for fiscal policy in reducing public debt.
The comparatively large magnitude of the losses of the two largest banks of Switzerland in relation to capital has underscored the systemic risks to the economy posed by the institutions’ size relative to Swiss GDP and their extensive cross-border and cross-currency activities.
The Swiss National Bank took decisive action to support financial market stability and dampen the recession. In the current situation, the main challenge facing the SNB concerns the exit strategy.
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Contagion risk and counterparty failure have been the main hallmarks of the current crisis. While some large diversified banks that focused mainly on commercial banking survived very well, others suffered crippling losses. Sound corporate governance and strong risk-management culture should enable banks to avoid excessive leverage and risk taking. The question is whether there is a better way, via leverage rules or rules on the
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This paper discusses the financial systems of OECD Enhanced Engagement Countries (EE5: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, and South Africa). Rather than providing a comprehensive survey of each financial system, it is designed to highlight some of the salient features of EE5 financial systems, emphasising those aspects of the system that these countries have in common and those that are different from those in OECD countries. While
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This note explores various regulatory issues related to financial innovation. It starts from a premise that financial innovations are neither always helpful (or benign) nor always threatening. Innovations have the potential to provide for a more efficient allocation of resources and thereby a higher level of capital productivity and economic growth. Many financial innovations have had this effect. But others have not. Examples of the
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OECD governments are facing ongoing, unprecedented challenges in raising large volumes of funds at lowest possible cost, while balancing refinancing, repricing and interest rate risks. Gross borrowing needs of OECD governments are expected to reach almost USD 16 trillion in 2009, up from an earlier estimate of around USD 12 trillion. The tentative outlook for 2010 shows a stabilising borrowing picture at around the level of USD 16