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This publication presents the full text of the Code of Liberalisation of Current Invisible Operations under which adhering countries have accepted legally binding obligations.
Big changes are needed to strengthen the capital positions of euro area banks. European banks remain at the heart of the euro area crisis. Despite actions to strengthen banks and build a banking union, confidence in the euro area banking system remains weak, and is likely to remain so until underlying concerns over low capitalisation of some banks are addressed.
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This report concludes that actual application of bail-ins, involving bondholders in loss sharing, could effectively reign in perceptions of implicit guarantees for bank debt. However, bail-ins are rare owing to concerns about contagion risks and depositor and investor protection, so implicit guarantees persist.
This methodological framework is intended to help governments develop more effective disaster risk management strategies, particularly financial strategies, building on strengthened risk assessment and risk financing.
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This study models the distance-to-default (DTD) of a large sample of banks from 2004 to 2011 and examines the results from the perspective of policy approaches that aim to reduce the riskiness of banks.
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Pension fund assets in OECD countries hit a record USD 20.1 trillion in 2011 but return on investment fell below zero, with an average negative return of -1.7%s, according to the OECD’s latest Pension Markets in Focus. The report says that weak equity markets and low interest rates drove the poor performance.
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During the current global crisis, capital inflows into Asian countries have increased,leading to excess liquidity and the risk of potential asset bubbles.
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Banks have been lowering their high pre-crisis leverage levels and are preparing for stricter regulatory capital requirements, and in the process have been reducing their lending. With the banking sector expected to shrink considerably, other actors, especially institutional investors, and new forms of financial intermediation will have to meet the credit needs of the economy.
A lack of finance for water resources management is a primary concern for most OECD countries. This is exacerbated in the current fiscal environment of tight budgets and strong fiscal consolidation, as public funding provides the lion’s share of financial resources for water management.
The report provides a framework for policy discussions around financing water resources management that are taking place at local, basin, national, or transboundary levels. The report goes beyond the traditional focus on financing water supply and sanitation to examine the full range of water management tasks that governments have to fulfill; when appropriate, a distinction is made on distinctive water issues.
The report identifies four principles (Polluter Pays, Beneficiary Pays, Equity, Policy Coherence), which have to be combined. In addition, it identifies five empirical issues, which have to be addressed on a case-by-case basis. Finally, it sketches a staged approach that governments might wish to consider, to assess the financial status of their water policies and to design robust financial strategies for water management. Case studies provide illustrations of selected instruments and how they can be used to finance water resources management.
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Prepared for the G20 Los Cabos Summit, this policy note discusses the potential for and the barriers to pension funds investing in green infrastructure projects.