How far to go – and to remain – in the direction of highly expansionary monetary policy hinges on the balance of marginal benefits and costs of additional monetary easing and its expected evolution over time. This paper sketches a framework for assessing this balance and applies it to four OECD economic areas: the euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.
In the wake of the Great Recession, a massive monetary policy stimulus was provided in the main OECD economies. It helped to stabilise financial markets and avoid deflation. Nonetheless, GDP growth has been sluggish and in some countries lower than expected given the measures taken, and estimated economic slack remains large.
In the run-up to the financial crisis, indebtedness of households and non-financial businesses rose to historically high levels in many OECD countries; gross debt of financial companies rose dramatically relative to GDP. Much of the debt accumulation appears to have been based on excessive risk-taking and exceptional macro-economic conditions and therefore not sustainable.
Sovereign index-linked bond issuance has grown significantly since the early 1980s and index-linked bonds have become a widely accepted part of the set of instruments that sovereign debt managers use for funding purposes. This paper sets out a methodology for assessing their cost effectiveness relative to other financing options, using UK examples for illustration.
English, PDF, 295kb
Prepared for the G20 Summit on 5-6 September 2013, this update on the implementation of the G20 High-Level Principles on Financial Consumer Protection is organised around three priority principles: Disclosure and Transparency; Responsible Business Conduct of Financial Services Providers and their Authorised Agents; and, Complaints Handling and Redress.
At a time when many governments are looking to encourage private investment in infrastructure to bridge the infrastructure financing gap, this paper compares the experience of pension funds in Canada and Australia, looking at infrastructure policies, the pension system, investment strategies, asset allocation and governance of pension funds.
English, PDF, 1,817kb
Faced with the acute poverty of many Russian pensioners, the Russian government is engaged in wide-ranging systemic reforms. This report contributes to the policy discussion by identifying aspects of the system that may need to be reformed and describing the experience of other countries as a point of comparison.
Italy’s policy of fiscal consolidation and growth-friendly structural reforms has substantially improved its economic prospects, but the adverse sentiment that the country has faced in the sovereign bond market over the past years has deep roots.
This initiative supports the advancement of financial literacy and capability programmes in low and middle‑income countries. With funding provided by the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, the World Bank and the OECD have conducted methodological, analytical and policy work on financial literacy, capability and education.
The overall financial architecture of a global climate agreement can help to ensure that national and international systems for tracking and matching climate support are efficient and effective. Recent OECD work focuses on tracking financial flows to support climate action.