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During the financial crisis many governments aided both the financial and non-financial sectors in their countries on an unprecedented scale. These emergency measures have in some cases taken precedence over competition rules. In particular the fact that governments helped some banks but not others has weakened competition in some markets, with “too big to fail” institutions commanding a higher market share than previously. This has
In this interview, Prof Zheng, a renowned Chinese expert on pensions, discusses the necessary reforms – in particular tax reforms – that are needed in order to further develop private pensions in China. The enterprise annuity system, as the private pension system in China is called, should become a key part of the retirement income system, but there are some obstacles that needs to be addressed first.
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This chapter discusses the size of current consolidation requirements and the pace at which budget positions should be strengthened in the context of a set of macroeconomic projections to 2025.
Large shifts in countries’ external current account positions can be disruptive, often reflecting sudden stops in the flows of external finance and leading to exchange rate and banking crises.
Turkey has considerably improved its terms of access to the global capital market. Progress in macroeconomic fundamentals has enhanced credibility and reduced risk premia and capital costs.
The 2010 Global Forum focused on innovative governmental policies intended to enhance the security and adequacy of defined contribution (DC) retirement plans and pension reform processes and recent developments in Asia-Pacific.
Despite major progress over the last decade, more reforms are needed to meet Indonesia’s medium-term objectives for growth and poverty reduction. The Survey reviews the main challenges in the areas of energy subsidies, infrastructure, labour markets, education, health care and social protection.
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This report shows continued strong borrowing by OECD governments amid concerns about sovereign risk. It includes revised estimates for 2010 and the projected outlook in 2011.
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Briefing on exchange rate developments
Discussions at this high-level event focused on the financial empowerment of individuals globally but with a particular focus on the Middle East North Africa region.