Institutional investors (investment funds, insurance companies and pension funds) are major collectors of savings and suppliers of funds to financial markets. Their role as financial intermediaries and their impact on investment strategies have grown significantly over recent years along with deregulation and globalisation of financial markets.
This publication provides a unique set of statistics that reflect the level and
Loan creation has not recovered after the crisis owing to a combination of demand and supply factors.
Hungarian debt level has steadily increased since 2001, with the debt-to-GDP ratio reaching about 84% at end-2011.
These country profiles describe private pension arrangements in OECD countries. This information is taken from the OECD Private Pensions Outlook 2008, published in February 2009.
Apparent characteristics of the Hungarian banking market such as large profits and high margins suggest weak competitive pressures. Weak competition in turn, may reduce efficiency in a lack of pressures to converge to marginal cost and to stimulate managerial efforts to reduce X-inefficiency.
The global crisis exposed weaknesses in the Hungarian financial system that pose risks to financial stability, as discussed in this working paper.
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A major challenge of economic transition in central and eastern European countries is creating the institutional framework crucial to market operation. OECD Economic Studies No. 25.