The average worker in Estonia faced a tax burden on labour income (tax wedge) of 39.9% in 2013 compared with the OECD average of 35.9%. Estonia was ranked 15 of the 34 OECD member countries in this respect.
This publication compiles the material developed and discussed at a conference on the economic impact of emigration jointly organised by the OECD and the Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 17 December 2012.
This review of Estonia’s energy policies analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It finds that Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive.
The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions.
The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states.
Education at a Glance 2013 - Country notes and key fact tables
The objective of senior budget official country reviews is to provide a comprehensive overview of the budget process in the country under examination, to evaluate national experiences in the light of international best practice and to provide specific policy recommendations.
English, , 622kb
This review was prepared to assess Estonia's investment policies so as to provide the OECD Council with a formal opinion on the willingness and ability of Estonia to assume the obligations of membership to the OECD in the field of investment.
English, , 109kb
The 2011 edition of Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators enables countries to see themselves in the light of other countries’ performance.
Since the restoration of independence in 1991, Estonia has met the challenge of establishing a fully functional, stable, and modern state.
English, , 650kb
An analysis of Estonia’s trade policy-related institutions and regulations and their influence on market openness, covering transparency, non-discrimination, trade restrictiveness, harmonisation towards international standards, conformity assessment procedures and intellectual property rights.