According to the Population Registry, the population of Estonia continued a longstanding decline in 2013, reaching 1.35 million by 1 January 2014, down 0.3% in a yearly comparison.
Country notes outlining regional variations in health, jobs, safety, environment, access to services, civic engagement, housing, education, income, and employment. These notes are from the OECD publication "How's Life in Your Region?".
Getting regions and cities 'right', adapting policies to the specificities of where people live and work, is vital to improving citizens’ well-being. View the country factsheets from the publication OECD Regional Outlook 2014.
Estonian, PDF, 389kb
Education at a Glance 2014: Estonia (Estonian)
This page contains all information relating to implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Estonia.
The average worker in Estonia faced a tax burden on labour income (tax wedge) of 39.9% in 2013 compared with the OECD average of 35.9%. Estonia was ranked 15 of the 34 OECD member countries in this respect.
This edition of Society at a Glance addresses the growing demand for quantitative evidence on social well-being and its trends with a special chapter on the social consequences of the global crisis.
Individual country notes assessing how regions and cities contribute to national growth and the well-being of society.
These country notes contain indicators which compare the political and institutional frameworks of national governments as well as revenues and expenditures, employment, and compensation. They include a description of government policies on integrity, e-government and open government.
This review of Estonia’s energy policies analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It finds that Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive.
The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions.
The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states.