Focus on Aid Targeting the Objectives of the Rio Conventions


The developed countries that signed the three Rio Conventions on Climate Change, Biological Diversity and Desertification in 1992 committed themselves to assist developing countries in the implementation of these Conventions. The DAC is monitoring aid targeting the global environmental objectives of the Rio Conventions through its Creditor Reporting System (CRS) using the "Rio markers". Every aid activity reported to the CRS should be screened and marked as either (i) targeting the Conventions as a 'principal' objective or a 'significant' objective, or (ii) not targeting the objective.

Five statistical markers exist to monitor aid for environmental purposes within the OECD DAC Creditor Reporting System (CRS). These are:

  • the ‘environment marker’, introduced in 1992;
  • the ‘Rio markers’ covering climate change mitigation, biodiversity, and desertification, introduced in 1998;
  • the ‘Rio marker’ for climate change adaptation, introduced in 2010.

The Rio markers are applicable to ODA and recently also to other official flows (i.e. non-concessional developmental flows, excluding export credits), where OECD DAC members have started reporting for 2010 data onward.  


Latest Statistical Analysis | Definitions | Use the Data | Joint Task Team on the Rio markers

Recent Events | Previous and Related Studies


Latest Statistical Analysis


The latest flyers on OECD DAC Statistics (below) give an analysis of trends in Official Development Assistance (ODA) to climate change adaptation, climate change mitigation, total climate change and biodiversity. The analysis is broken down by donor, sector, recipient (country and region), aid instrument, and income group. 

Release of 2012 data on aid targeting global environment objectives (see Data section below)

Don't miss new update with 2012 data


‌‌‌  ‌  ‌ ‌


The Aid in Support of Environment 2010-2011 presents summary statistics on aid focused on environment by each OECD DAC member. Information shown includes the environment policy marker coverage, the top ten recipients, a sector breakdown of environment-focused aid, and data on aid focusing the Rio conventions on biodiversity, desertification, and climate change. 

Please see here previous OECD studies on aid supporting environment-related objectives



Statistical Marker Definitions


Climate change adaptation-related aid is defined as activities that intend to reduce the vulnerability of human or natural systems to the impacts of climate change and climate-related risks, by maintaining or increasing adaptative capacityand resilience. Full definitionExamples.

Climate change mitigation-related aid is defined as activities that contribute to the objective of stabilisation of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system by promoting efforts to reduce or limit GHG emissions or to enhance GHG sequestration.  Full definition.

The Handbook on the OECD-DAC Climate Markers provides for more information on the DAC’s statistical markers on climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation. 
Biodiversity-related aid is defined as activities that promote at least one of the three objectives of the Convention: the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of its components (ecosystems, species or genetic resources), or fair and equitable sharing of the benefits of the utilisation of genetic resources. Full definition.
Desertification-related aid is defined as activities that combat desertification or mitigate the effects of drought in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas through prevention and/or reduction of land degradation, rehabilitation of partly degraded land, or reclamation of desertified land. Full definition.
Environment-related aid is defined as activities that are intended to produce an improvement, or something that is diagnosed as an improvement in the physical and/or biological environment of the recipient country, area or target group concerned, or specific actions to integrate environmental concerns with a range of development objectives through institution building and/or capacity development. Full definition.


Use the Data


Access the Database

To obtain data by recipient, sector and at activity level by querying the on-line CRS database for Rio markers and environment marker; click here (updated in December 2013).

The time series for Rio marker are also presented here: Rio marker data (updated in May 2013).  Please note that data available in the CRS online may differ from the time series. The latter take into account additional amounts provided by members during special studies that could not be integrated in the regular CRS database presented in CRS online.


Interpret the Data

Every aid activity that DAC members report to the CRS is screened and marked as either (i) targeting the environment and/or one or more of the Rio Conventions as a 'principal' objective or a 'significant' objective, or (ii) not targeting the objective.

A key feature of the CRS system is that it recognises that finance may target more than one policy objective and allows one activity to be tracked against multiple environmental policy objectives, i.e. it can be marked against several markers. Care needs to be taken in aggregating figures targeting multiple objectives to avoid double-counting. For more information on avoiding double-counting, see the user guide.

The marker system was not originally developed to  allow for an exact quantification of aid targeting a particular financial commitment. Instead, the markers indicate donors’ policy objectives in relation to each aid activity, and provide an approximate quantification of aid flows that target environmental  objectives. In the marker data, presentations of the figures for ‘principal’ and ‘significant’ objectives are shown separately. The sum is referred to as the 'estimate' or 'upper bound' of environment-related aid.

For more information on interpreting the data, please see our Frequently Asked Questions.


Additional Guidelines on OECD Aid Statistics

OECD Aid Statistics Methodology provides information on data collection, additional resources and definitions, including the Statistical Reporting Directives.

Frequently Asked Questions on DAC Statistics covers the most common queries on definitions, and includes information on how to download the database.


Recent Events




For any question related to Rio markers and data presented on this page, please send a message to dac.contact@oecd.org


Related Documents


OECD Development Assistance Committee Tracks Aid in Support of Climate Change

Analyses of Aid - how much aid is delivered, where and for what purpose

Environment: Climate change aid up to USD 22.9 billion in 2010, says OECD’s Gurría


Countries list

  • Afghanistan
  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Andorra
  • Angola
  • Anguilla
  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • Aruba
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bahamas
  • Bahrain
  • Bangladesh
  • Barbados
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Belize
  • Benin
  • Bermuda
  • Bhutan
  • Bolivia
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Botswana
  • Brazil
  • Brunei Darussalam
  • Bulgaria
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cambodia
  • Cameroon
  • Canada
  • Cape Verde
  • Cayman Islands
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Chile
  • China (People’s Republic of)
  • Chinese Taipei
  • Colombia
  • Comoros
  • Congo
  • Cook Islands
  • Costa Rica
  • Croatia
  • Cuba
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Côte d'Ivoire
  • Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Denmark
  • Djibouti
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • El Salvador
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Estonia
  • Ethiopia
  • European Union
  • Faeroe Islands
  • Fiji
  • Finland
  • Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
  • France
  • French Guiana
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Gibraltar
  • Greece
  • Greenland
  • Grenada
  • Guatemala
  • Guernsey
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Guyana
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Hong Kong, China
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Iraq
  • Ireland
  • Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Isle of Man
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jamaica
  • Japan
  • Jersey
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kenya
  • Kiribati
  • Korea
  • Kuwait
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Lao People's Democratic Republic
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Macao (China)
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Malaysia
  • Maldives
  • Mali
  • Malta
  • Marshall Islands
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Mayotte
  • Mexico
  • Micronesia (Federated States of)
  • Moldova
  • Monaco
  • Mongolia
  • Montenegro
  • Montserrat
  • Morocco
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Namibia
  • Nauru
  • Nepal
  • Netherlands
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • New Zealand
  • Nicaragua
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Niue
  • Norway
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Palau
  • Palestinian Administered Areas
  • Panama
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Puerto Rico
  • Qatar
  • Romania
  • Russian Federation
  • Rwanda
  • Saint Helena
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • Saint Lucia
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Samoa
  • San Marino
  • Sao Tome and Principe
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Senegal
  • Serbia
  • Serbia and Montenegro (pre-June 2006)
  • Seychelles
  • Sierra Leone
  • Singapore
  • Slovak Republic
  • Slovenia
  • Solomon Islands
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • South Sudan
  • Spain
  • Sri Lanka
  • Sudan
  • Suriname
  • Swaziland
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Syrian Arab Republic
  • Tajikistan
  • Tanzania
  • Thailand
  • Timor-Leste
  • Togo
  • Tokelau
  • Tonga
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey
  • Turkmenistan
  • Turks and Caicos Islands
  • Tuvalu
  • Uganda
  • Ukraine
  • United Arab Emirates
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
  • United States Virgin Islands
  • Uruguay
  • Uzbekistan
  • Vanuatu
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam
  • Virgin Islands (UK)
  • Wallis and Futuna Islands
  • Western Sahara
  • Yemen
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe