Biodiversity and ecosystems continue to be lost, both with regard to life on land, and life below water. The OECD is working to promote biodiversity policies that are economically efficient, environmentally effective and distributionally equitable, including those policies that mainstream biodiversity in cross-sectoral practices such as agriculture, fishing and forestry.


The OECD provides governments with analysis to support the development of biodiversity policies that are economically efficient, environmentally effective and distributionally equitable. Policy analysis by the OECD focuses on the economic valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and the use of economic instruments, incentives, and other policy measures to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services.

This work supports the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Read more on mainstreaming biodiversity and development and the Economics and policies for biodiversity: the OECD's response.


As a major user of land in many countries agriculture has had, and continues to have, a large impact on biodiversity and ecosystems. Agro-ecosystems, biodiversity and agriculture are closely interconnected; ecological functions and ecosystem services, such as soil structure and fertility maintenance, nutrient cycling, pollination, and the regulation of pests and diseases are vital for crop production.

The project "Biodiversity, ecosystems and agricultural policies" examines how to better attain synergies and minimise trade-offs across this nexus; and draws on experiences from a broad range of countries and will summarise implications in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  • Green growth for food, agriculture and fisheries


Read more on OECD work on sustainable agriculture including on biodiversity and ecosystems.


The OECD is providing policy analysis of pressing global issues in fisheries, aquaculture, and sustainable fisheries management. Major developments are affecting fisheries in OECD countries, including changes in government policies, trade, and fisheries and aquaculture production.

Video: The Blue EconomyFisheries will be crucial in feeding a global population set to rise by 2 billion over the next 40 years. The challenge today is harnessing the potential of this Blue Economy.

Read more on the OECD work on fisheries.


The work on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) in developing countries assesses and evaluates potential positive incentives and policy approaches aiming to contribute to global climate change mitigation.

Environmental Performance Reviews

Mainstreaming biodiversity into sectoral policies (2016-2011)

The OECD Environmental Performance Review (EPR) chapters on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use assess how well the reviewed countries have done in achieving their biodiversity-related objectives, in terms of both environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency of policies and measures, and in mainstreaming biodiversity considerations into sectoral policies such as:

  • agriculture,
  • forestry,
  • fishery,
  • tourism,
  • power generation, and
  • mining.


All EPRs provide recommendations for improving future policies and performance.


Since the inception of the third EPR cycle in 2010, 12 EPRs have included chapters focusing on biodiversity issues:


Read more on the OECD work on environmental country reviews.

Biodiversity and finance

The conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity requires finance and investment from the public and private sector. Clear objectives, securing long-term funds, with prioritised criteria, and consistent performance evaluation are all features that help to deliver more effective outcomes.

The OECD’s work considers how financial flows can be scaled-up, whilst enhancing the cost-effectiveness of existing biodiversity financing. Distributional implications of biodiversity policies are also examined.

The 2017-18 project "Biodiversity finance - Effectiveness and efficiency" will review the available evidence on the environmental and cost-effectiveness of various biodiversity policies, and the advances in targeting tools that can help ensure policies deliver greater biodiversity benefits per unit of investment. Read more:


Read more on Rio Markers.