Biodiversity, water and natural resource management

Economics and policies for biodiversity: OECD's response


The OECD provides governments with analysis to support the development of biodiversity policies that are economically efficient, environmentally effective and distributionally equitable. Policy analysis by the OECD focuses on the economic valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and the use of economic instruments, incentives, and other policy measures to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. This work also supports the Convention on Biological Diversity.




OECD work on biodiversity and ecosystems is addressing a number of key areas of current and emerging policy priorities. These topics are also directly relevant to the upcoming meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP13) which will take place in December 2016 in Mexico. These include:

  • The Economics of Marine Protected Areas -this project is examining the key issues that need to be considered for the effective design and implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs). Focus areas include the costs and benefits of MPAs, how to effectively site an MPA, robust monitoring and reporting frameworks, compliance and enforcement, and how to help ensure sustainable financing of MPAs.

  • Biodiversity and Development: Mainstreaming and Managing for Results - this project is focusing on the three key areas namely mainstreaming biodiversity and development objectives at the national level, at the sectoral level (e.g. in agriculture, fisheries, forestry, tourism), and how to monitor and evaluate mainstreaming performance over time. It is a joint project between the OECD Environment Directorate and the Development Co-operation Directorate. The theme of the upcoming CBD COP13 in December 2016 is "Mainstreaming Biodiversity for Well-Being".

  • Barriers to Effective Biodiversity Policy Reform - this project is examining the political economy elements of biodiversity policy reform. It aims to identify the barriers encountered in effectively implementing biodiversity policy reform (e.g., competitiveness issues, distributional concerns), and how these can be addressed.


OECD work on biodiversity and ecosystems


  • Biodiversity Offsets (forthcoming) - This report will provide policy makers and practitioners with good practice insights on the opportunities, challenges and means to address biodiversity offset design and implementation features so as to ensure more effective programmes. Read the Preliminary Policy Highlights.

  • Scaling-up Finance Mechanisms for Biodiversity - This publication examines the opportunities for scaling-up finance for biodiversity from six-called "innovative financial mechanisms" as classified under the Convention on Biological Diversity. Read the full Policy Highlights below.


Working Papers

Key Policy Areas

  • Biodiversity indicators, valuation and assessment
  • Economic instruments, incentives and market
  • Biodiversity finance, developement and distributional issues
  • Biodiversity and Climate Change
  • Biodiversity and Agriculture
  • Biodiversity and Fisheries





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