This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Switzerland. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on water management and biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.
Switzerland has taken steps to improve the environmental performance of its agricultural, energy and transport sectors. The country is a top OECD performer in terms of greenhouse gas emissions intensity and it should be commended for its innovative approach towards rehabilitation of its river system. Yet unsustainable consumption patterns and high levels of municipal waste generation, as well as high percentages of threatened species, are areas of concern. As a major financial centre, Switzerland has a key role to play in promoting green finance.
This report discusses the main results of a study on how to reduce air pollution from urban public transport in Kazakhstan. More specifically, it presents the analysis of how to design a green public investment programme in this sector. This sector represents an opportunity for Kazakhstan to address key objectives in its environmental and climate-related policies as part of the country’s ambitions to transit to a green economic path of development. In addition to supporting environmental and climate-related objectives, the programme is designed to support the modernisation of the urban transport fleet in the country as well as stimulate the domestic market to shift to modern buses powered by clean fuels.
The programme is designed to be implemented in two phases: Phase 1 which covers the cities of Kostanay and Shymkent; and Phase 2 which extends the coverage to all major urban centres in Kazakhstan. Two scenarios for the implementation of the second (extended) phase of the programme are developed. Their total cost is estimated to be up to EUR 300 mln. These investments are expected to result in significant air improvement with NOx emissions seeing the greatest decline of up to 2 mln kg/year, whereas CO2 emissions are estimated to decline in an ideal scenario by up to 70 thousand t/year.
This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Canada. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on climate change mitigation and urban wastewater management.
Canada, the world's second largest country by area, has abundant natural resources. Its vast territory includes large tracts of undisturbed wilderness. However, urbanisation and agriculture are putting pressure on the natural asset base. Since 2000, Canada has made progress in decoupling economic growth from air pollution, energy consumption and GHG emissions, but it remains one of the most energy- and emissions-intensive economies in the OECD. Further progress is needed to transition to a green, low-carbon economy.
The water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in Moldova is not financially sustainable: tariffs do not typically cover operational costs and capital investments are heavily funded by external development partners. This report analyses several options for streamlining and strengthening domestic financial support mechanisms (DFSMs) in terms of both supply and demand, discusses different scenarios and recommends a number of actions to ensure effective DFSM implementation, notably: 1) sufficient investment for the implementation of targets and obligations set in the national strategies, the Association Agreement with the EU, as well as Moldova’s international commitments (water-related Sustainable Development Goals, and the “Water-to-all” commitment); 2) the financial sustainability of operators; and 3) the affordability of WSS services for end-users, especially low-income segments of the population.
For a variety of reasons, energy use in the agro-food sector continues to rise, and in many countries, is highly dependent on fossil fuels, contributing significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. It is therefore becoming urgent to consider how the food supply chain can improve its energy efficiency. This report analyses ways of improving energy use in the agro-food sector in relation to both producers and consumers, and puts forward a set of policy recommendations that governments can introduce to meet green growth objectives and achieve sustainable development.
Making investment and environment policy goals mutually supportive creates both challenges and opportunities for governments and other stakeholders. The OECD analyses key issues of the relationship between investment and environment to help policy makers address these challenges and opportunities.
Investment in clean energy infrastructure needs to be scaled up to support the broader development, economic and climate agenda. This will require leveraging private investment, however investment in this area remains constrained by barriers, including market and government failures. This page describes what tools the OECD provides to governments to create an enabling environment for investment flows to clean energy infrastructure.
Over the ten-year Outlook period, agricultural markets are projected to remain weak, with growth in China weakening and biofuel policies having less impact on markets than in the past. Future growth in crop production will be attained mostly by increasing yields, and growth in meat and dairy production from both higher animal stocks and improved yields. Agricultural trade is expected to grow more slowly, but remain less sensitive to weak economic conditions than other sectors. These demand, supply and trade pressures are all evident in Southeast Asia, where this report identifies scope to improve agricultural productivity sustainably. Real prices are expected to remain flat or decline for most commodities.
Green growth policies need to be founded on a good understanding of the determinants of green growth and need to be supported with appropriate indicators to monitor progress. This book presents a selection of updated and new indicators that illustrate the progress that OECD and G20 countries have made since the 1990s. It updates the 2014 edition.
Intense exploitation of our oceans and seas is degrading marine biodiversity and ecosystems at an alarming rate. This report presents good practice insights for effectively managing marine protected areas (MPAs), one of the policy instruments available for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity and ecosystems. While global coverage of MPAs has been increasing over the past two decades, further efforts are required to meet the target under the Sustainable Development Goals and to ensure they are effective.
Drawing on the literature and numerous examples from developed and developing countries, this book highlights how the environmental and cost effectiveness of MPAs can be enhanced. It covers issues including the benefits and costs of MPAs, the need for more strategic siting of MPAs, monitoring and compliance, sustainable finance for MPAs, and the need to embed these in a wider policy mix so as to address the multiple pressures on marine ecosystems.