OECD Environmental Performance Reviews provide independent assessments of countries’ progress towards their environmental policy objectives. Reviews promote peer learning, enhance government accountability, and provide targeted recommendations aimed at improving countries’ environmental performance, individually and collectively. They are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data and evidence-based analysis. Each cycle of Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD member countries and selected partner countries. The most recent reviews include: Spain (2015), Brazil (2015) and Chile (2016).
This report is the third Environmental Performance Review of France. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on energy transition and biodiversity.
In 2009 developed countries committed to jointly mobilise USD 100 billion a year in climate finance by 2020 for climate action in developing countries. This report provides a status check on the level of climate finance mobilised by developed countries in 2013 and 2014, five years after this initial commitment was made at COP15 in Copenhagen. It shows that there has been significant progress in meeting this goal.
The report aims to be transparent and rigorous in its assessment of the available data and underlying assumptions and methodologies, within the constraints of an aggregate reporting exercise. While methodological approaches and data collection efforts to support estimates such as this one are improving, there nevertheless remains significant work to be done to arrive at more complete and accurate estimates in the future.
To tackle climate change, CO2 emissions need to be cut. Pricing carbon is one of the most effective and lowest-cost ways of inducing such cuts. This report presents the first full analysis of the use of carbon pricing on energy in 41 OECD and G20 economies, covering 80% of global energy use and of CO2 emissions. The analysis takes a comprehensive view of carbon prices, including specific taxes on energy use, carbon taxes and tradable emission permit prices. It shows the entire distribution of effective carbon rates by country and the composition of effective carbon rates by six economic sectors within each country. Carbon prices are seen to be often very low, but some countries price significant shares of their carbon emissions. The ‘carbon pricing gap’, a synthetic indicator showing the extent to which effective carbon rates fall short of pricing emissions at EUR 30 per tonne, the low-end estimate of the cost of carbon used in this study, sheds light on potential ways of strengthening carbon pricing.
OECD and FAO have developed this guidance to help enterprises observe standards of responsible business conduct and undertake due diligence along agricultural supply chains in order to ensure that their operations do not lead to adverse impacts and do contribute to sustainable development. The Guidance comprises:
• A model enterprise policy outlining the standards that enterprises should observe to build responsible agricultural supply chains;
• A framework for risk-based due diligence describing the five steps that enterprises should follow to identify, assess, mitigate and account for how they address the adverse impacts of their activities;
• A description of the major risks faced by enterprises and the measures to mitigate these risks;
• Guidance for engaging with indigenous peoples.
The Framework is an operational tool offering guidance on actionable steps for harnessing non-renewable natural resources to build competitive, diversifi ed, and sustainable economies in a scalable manner. It presents a practical guide on how host governments, extractives industries and civil society can work together in a structured and systematic way to enable in-country shared value creation and advance the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Framework transcends sectoral boundaries and focuses on strategies to foster coherence, sequencing, and effective co-ordination for integrated policymaking, and suggests monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to assess progress and impact over time.
The actionable steps are addressed to governments, industry, and civil society clearly articulating their respective roles for improved collaboration, mutual respect and accountability.
This report presents recommendations on the reform of economic instruments for water resources management in Kyrgyzstan, specifically on tariffs for urban water supply and sanitation (WSS) and irrigation water, pollution charges, surface water abstraction charges for enterprises (consumptive and non-consumptive uses), specific land tax rates for the Issyk-Kul biosphere reserve, as well as taxes and customs duty on products contributing to water pollution. For each instrument, alternative reform options are identified and assessed, and preferred options put forward, with an action plan.
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The car tax in Israel has been historically the highest compared to any other country in the world, except for Denmark. The vehicle purchase tax was adjusted in 2005, 2009 and 2013. The Israeli experience sets a precedent for a tax that takes all pollutants into account.
Disasters present a broad range of human, social, financial, economic and environmental impacts, with potentially long-lasting, multi-generational effects. The financial management of these impacts is a key challenge for individuals and governments in developed and developing countries. G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors and APEC Finance Ministers have recognised the importance and priority of disaster risk management strategies and, in particular, disaster risk assessment and risk financing. The OECD has supported the development of strategies for the financial management of natural and man-made disaster risks, under the guidance of the OECD High-Level Advisory Board on Financial Management of Large-scale Catastrophes and the OECD Insurance and Private Pensions Committee. This work has included the elaboration of an OECD Recommendation on Good Practices for Mitigating and Financing Catastrophic Risks and a draft Recommendation on Disaster Risk Financing Strategies The Financial Management of Flood Risk extends this work by applying the lessons from the OECD’s analysis of disaster risk financing practices and the development of its guidance to the specific case of floods.
OECD Environmental Performance Reviews provide independent assessments of countries’ progress towards their environmental policy objectives. Reviews promote peer learning, enhance government accountability, and provide targeted recommendations aimed at improving environmental performance, individually and collectively. They are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data, and evidence-based analysis. Each cycle of Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD countries and selected partner economies.
This report is the second Environmental Performance Review of Chile. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on climate change and biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.
Since the inception of the Environmental Performance Reviews programme in 1992, most of the OECD member countries have been reviewed twice. The third cycle of reviews effectively began in 2010, with a new approach that systematically incorporates key environmental trends, policy-making environment and green growth, plus two thematic chapters.